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UNIT B
EVOLUTION AND
MOVEMENT OF FASHION
2.04 Identify major fashion
centers, types of designers, and
price market categories.
Major fashion centers
•New York City
•Seattle
•Los Angeles
•Paris
•Atlanta
•Milan
•Chicago
•Florence
•Dallas
•Rome
•Miami
•London
New York City, New York
•Largest fashion marketing center in the
U.S.
•Known for the Seventh Avenue garment
district in Manhattan
–Permanent showrooms of manufacturers
from the U.S. and around the world
–Open weekdays year round
•Most of the production jobs have been
lost to other countries with cheaper labor,
but some production jobs exist in
Chinatown, Queens, and Brooklyn.
New York City, New York (cont.)
•Fashion weeks
sponsored by the
Council of Fashion
Designers of
America (CFDA)
–Formed corporation
called 7th on Sixth,
Inc. to centralize
runway shows
–Shows held in tents
in Bryant Park
Los Angeles, California
• CaliforniaMart is the
largest fashion and
textile facility in the U.S.
• An 82-block garment
district includes
designers, wholesalers,
manufacturers, and
patternmakers.
• Hosts a fashion week
five times a year
• Primarily serves the
West coast
•Atlanta, Georgia
 AmericasMart
 Primarily serves southeast
•Chicago, Illinois—serves central states
•Dallas, Texas
 International Apparel Mart
 Primarily serves central states
 Known for evening, bridal, and western
fashion
•Miami, Florida
 World’s largest swimwear show
 Wholesale center for the Americas
•Seattle, Washington
Paris, France
• Considered the world
fashion leader
• Shows attract over 40,000
visitors and 1,100
exhibitors from 30
countries
• Prêt-à-porter Paris®
shows twice a year at the
same times as massproduced lines but at
different locations
• Alta moda: The high fashion
industry in Italy.
• Rome is the center for
couture.
• Milan is the center for highquality ready-to-wear.
• Florence is known for lowerpriced ready-to-wear,
menswear, children’s wear,
and knitwear.
• Main collections are shown
in fashion fairs prior to the
French showings.
ITALY
Basic types of designers
• Couturier: One who creates original, individually
designed high fashion; usually owns a fashion house.
• Stylist: One who designs by changing or adapting
designs of others.
• Makes lower-priced merchandise
• Creations made during the rise stage of the fashion
cycle
• Primarily designs for manufacturers like The Gap, The
Limited, and Guess
• Freelance designer: An independent designer who sells
sketches to manufacturers.
Price market categories of women’s
apparel
Designer (Couture)
• Category now almost extinct due to the extremely small
market
• Original, high-priced fashion custom-made for a very few
individuals
• One-of-a-kind extreme styles, avante-garde- LADY GAGA
• Luxurious, expensive fabrics and trims with intricate
details
• Sold through the designer’s salon
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Designer (Couture)
• Sell for many thousands of
dollars, maybe up to
$50,000 per garment, but
do not generate a profit
Dior, Chanel, Yves St. Laurent, Gucci, Prada, Versace,
Balenciaga and Marc Jacobs
Price market categories of
women’s apparel (cont.)
Bridge
• Has almost replaced the couture category
• Secondary lines of well-known couture
designers
• Have the designer’s label
• Most expensive ready-to-wear
• Limited editions, small quantities offered for
sale
• Expensive fabrics with fine details
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Bridge
• Sell for many hundreds of
dollars, maybe as much as
$5,000
• Sold in fashionable dress
shops and upscale
department stores like
Neiman Marcus, Sak’s,
Nordstrom’s, and Bergdorf
Goodman
• Armani, Gucci, Calvin Klein, Ralph
Lauren, Geoffrey Beene, Anne Klein,
Prada, Gaultier
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Better
• Have a firm label rather than a designer’s name.
Example: Jones of New York, Liz Claiborne, Ann
Klein, Armani Exchange, Kouture by Kimora
• Ready-to-wear produced in larger quantities
• Reasonable prices
• High quality
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Better
• Found in specialty
stores and department
stores. Examples:
Macy’s, Marshall Field,
.
and Lord & Taylor
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Moderate
• Well-known and nationally-advertised brand
labels. Examples: Jantzen, Gap, and
Wrangler
• Lesser-known or unknown designers work for
the manufacturer.
• Many items inspired by designer creations
• Widely available and worn by the majority of
America
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Moderate
• Medium-priced
merchandise
• High volume sales
and higher price
margins
• Sold primarily
through department,
chain, or specialty
stores
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Budget/Discount
• Lowest priced category
• Created by stylists
• Knockoffs: Copies of higher-priced items.
• Mass produced in less expensive fabrics with
fewer details
• Brands such as Gitano, Donkenny, Kathie
Lee, Arizona jeans, and Cherokee
Price market categories of women’s
apparel (cont.)
Budget/Discount
•Sold in discount stores
and low-price chains
•Private labels such as
Arizona jeans (J.C.
Penney), Apostrophe
(Sears), and Mossimo
(Target), George (Wal-Mart)
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