Citations within Text

References: General Rules
Beginning in 2009, APA requires a digital object identifier (DOI) whenever possible. A DOI provides a fixed
link to the source’s location on the Internet. To locate a DOI or to look up an article from a DOI go to:
Use hanging indent to format the citations on a Reference Page. Indent the second line of each reference
and all subsequent lines using a ½ inch hanging indent. In Microsoft Word’s Home tab under Paragraph go
to Index and Spacing. In the Identification box, go to Special and select Hanging. Click OK.
Alphabetize the references by author’s last name and double-space all references. Use the AZ↓ feature in
Word to alphabetize the list.
The examples below are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2010).
Berne, E. (2004). Games people play: The psychology of human relationships. New York,
NY: Ballantine Books.
Cloud, J. (2009, January 19). Minds on the edge. Time, 173. Retrieved from
Use For:
Book (1 author)
Magazine article
from the web
without DOI
Dallaire, D.H., & Weintraub, M. (2005, December). Predicting children’s separation
anxiety, at age 6: The contributions of infant-mother attachment security, and
Online journal
Article with a DOI
maternal sensitivity, and maternal separation anxiety. Attachment & Human
Development, 7, 393-408. doi: 10.1080/25616730500365894
Dobson, L. (2006, July/August). What’s your humor style? Psychology Today, 39(4), 7477.
Print magazine
Article without DOI
Ferretti, R.P., Lewis, W. E. & Andrews-Weckerly, S. (2009, August). Do goals affect the
structure of students’ argumentative writing strategies? Journal of Educational
Psychology, 101, 577-589. doi: 10.1037/a0014702
Print journal with
Hitti, M. (200). Arthritis rising: Are you at risk? Retrieved from
Hugo, H. S. (2005). Cancer. In L.M. Tierney, S. J. McPhee, & M. A. Papadakis (Eds.),
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment (44th ed., pp.1589-1651). New York, NY:
McGraw Hill.
Chapter in an
edited book
Lowis, M., Edwards, A. & Burton, M. (2009). Coping with retirement: Well-being, health,
and religion. Journal of Psychology, 143, 427-448. Retrieved from
Online journal
article with no DOI
Citations within Text
APA uses the author-date method of citing references within the text of the paper, which allows the
reader to easily locate the reference in the alphabetical list. Two examples follow:
Example 1:
Onega (2006) used old family photographs to engage elderly patients…
(The author’s name is part of the narrative.)
Example 2:
In a recent study of elderly patients (Onega, 2006), old family photographs…
(The author’s name is not part of the narrative.)
Two Authors: Cite both names for every reference in the text. E.g. (Dallaire & Weintraub, 2005)
Three, Four, or Five Authors: Include all authors in the first citation; in subsequent citations, use
only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
For more than six authors consult the APA publication manual.
title of article
Spain, M. (2009, July). Pharmacological management of type 2 diabetes in newly diagnosed older adults.
Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35(7), 16-21. doi: 10.3928/00989134-20090527-03
journal name
Digital Object Identifier
Other examples of APA style may be found at:
 (American Psychological Association) (Purdue University)
Rev. w/permission from Paul Process 4/2/2012
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