Blood: The liquid of life

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Brittany Hancock
NSF NMGK-8
University of Mississippi
April 2006
NSF North Mississippi GK-8
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/journey/phase2_a1.html
Everybody's Antibodies
Circulatory System

Parts of the
Circulatory System:
1.
2.
3.
Heart
Blood Vessels
Blood
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0115080/?c=circ_sys
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Circulatory System: Heart

Heart



Four chamber
muscular organ
About the size of
your fist
Pumps the blood
through the blood
vessels of the body
http://library.thinkquest.org/C0115080/?c=heart#
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

Blood vessels - system of
connected tubes that deliver
blood to and from the heart and
the body’s cells.
Types of blood vessels:
1.
2.
3.
Arteries - carry oxygenated blood
away from the heart.
Capillaries - very small and deliver
oxygenated blood from the arteries
to cells in the body and then carry
the deoxygenated blood and waste
to the veins.
Veins - carry deoxygenated blood
and waste back to the heart.
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http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodvessels.html
Circulatory System: Blood Vessels
Circulatory System: Blood Vessels
http://www.gsis.edu.hk/student-projects/biology/Biology%20Programmes/Biology%202%20Photomicrographs/CDIHISTO_final%20files/s-English/Jepg_labels/Animal%20Histology/01_Artery%20&%20vein_labels.JPG
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Circulatory System: Blood

Functions of the blood:





Flows through our circulatory system
delivering oxygen and food to all our body cells
Carries away carbon dioxide and other waste
products from cells
Fights infections
Keeps our body temperature normal (98.6 oF)
Clots broken blood vessels and skin
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What is blood?


Blood is a fluid tissue.
Composed of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Plasma
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets
SEM Image of Red Blood cell,
Platelet, and a White Blood
Cell.
Plasma
http://www.cnsv.net/everyone/news/art/rbc1-a.jpg
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodplasma.html
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


Plasma is the straw colored liquid
in the blood.
Contains mostly water (~ 90%)
Composes ~ 55% of the total
volume of the blood in the body
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http://encarta.msn.com/media_461516365_761578429_-1_1/Constituents_of_Blood.html
Plasma

Red blood cells contain a
protein called hemoglobin.


Main function:


Hemoglobin is an oxygen
carrying protein that gives the
blood a red color when
oxygenated.
carry oxygen and remove carbon
dioxide from the cells in the
body
Mature red blood cells are
flat and have a disk like
shape with a thin concave
middle giving the cell a
“doughnut” appearance.
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http://library.thinkquest.org/C0115080/?c=rbc
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)


White blood cells play a major
role in our immune system which
fights infection in our bodies.
There are five different kinds
of white blood cells and each
type serves a different
function.




Some white blood cells actually
http://www.medengulf bacteria.
ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/nh/wcb.cfm
Other types produce antibodies This is an image of the most common
(proteins) that destroy bacteria white blood cell, neutrophils. These
and viruses.
cells engulf bacteria that try to enter
In general, these cells are much
bigger than red blood cells.
There are fewer of these cells
than red blood cells in our blood.
the bloodstream. The pink and purple
cells are neutrophils and the red disk
like shapes are red blood cells.
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Platelets


Platelets are the smallest component of the
blood.
They are disk like in shape.
http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol115/Wy
att/Immunology/Blood.htm
Observe how small the
platelets are compared
to the white blood cells
(purple) and the red
blood cells (light red).
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Platelets and Blood Clots

Platelets help stop
bleeding by
secreting a hormone
that constricts the
blood vessels and
helps form a “spider
web” to trap red
bloods cells. This
clots cuts and tears
in a blood vessel or
skin.
Blood Clot
http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/2003/imper
ial_Bhono/bloodclot2.jpg
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

Your blood type depends on the
antigens and antibodies your blood
contains.
Why is blood type important?

If a patient needs blood, the doctor must
know the patient’s blood type. Giving a
patient the wrong blood type can cause the
blood to clot (medical term: agglutinate)
which can result in serious illness and
possibly death.
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http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educational/landsteiner/readmore.html
Blood Type
Discovery of Blood Type



The blood types were
discovered by Karl
Landsteiner at the University
of Vienna in 1901.
He was researching why
blood transfusions sometimes
caused death and sometimes
saved the life of the patient.
In 1930 he received the
Nobel Prize for his discovery.
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Karl Landsteiner
http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/AB
O_system.htm
Why are there blood types?




Red blood cells contain antigens located on the
surface of the cell.
Plasma contains antibodies that react with
foreign objects in the blood and cleanse the
blood. These antibodies are produced to act
against a particular foreign object. Therefore,
antibodies are specific when acting against the
antigen.
The combination of antigens and antibodies that
the red blood cells and plasma contain or do not
contain, determines your blood type.
Medically important antigens are A, B, O, and Rh
factor.
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Antigens & Antibodies
Illustration of Red Blood Cells with Different Antigens
Antigen A
Antigen B
Rh Factor
Illustration of Antibodies possible in the Plasma
Antibody A
Antibody B
Antibody Rh
These antigens can NSF
bind
to the specific antibody.
North Mississippi GK-8
Blood Type Chart
Red Blood Cell
Plasma
Antigens
Antibodies
A
B
A and Rh
B
B
B
A
B+
B and Rh
A
AB
A and B
none
AB+
A, B, and Rh
none
none
A and B
Rh
A and B
Blood Type
A
-
A+
-
-
O
-
O+
Rh- people can always develop Rh antibodies
in their plasma.
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Blood Types

There are 8 possible blood types:
A+
A



B+
B-
AB+
AB-
O+
O-
Type A people have A antigens on their red blood cells and
B antibodies (these act against B antigens) in their plasma.
Type B have B antigens on their red blood cells and A
antibodies (act against A antigen) in their plasma.
Type AB people have both A & B antigens present on their
red blood cells and no antibodies in their plasma.
Type O people have no antigens present on their red blood
cells, but have both A & B antibodies (act against A and B
antigens) in their plasma.
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Rh Factor


Rh factor is also an antigen on the red
blood cells. If a person has Rh on their
cells, they are Rh+, but if they don’t have
it they are Rh-. This is identified by a +
or - following the blood typing letter.
A person with Rh- blood does not
necessarily have the Rh antibody present
in their plasma, but if they receive blood
from an Rh+ person it is possible to
develop this antibody against Rh factor
and cause the blood to clot. Therefore,
Rh- people should never receive blood
from an Rh+ person.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Take a sample of the patient’s blood.
Obtain three different serums, one
containing antibody A, another with
antibody B, and another with antibody
Rh factor.
Add some of the patient’s blood sample
into each serum.
Observe the serums to see which serum
clots (agglutinates).
If the serum clots, then the patient
has that blood type.
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http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/livertransplant_ez/
How to type blood:
Blood Donation



If a person with blood type A were to
receive B blood (B antigen on the red
blood cells), then the foreign red blood
cells would be attacked by the B
antibodies in the blood type A’s plasma.
Type O- is called the universal donor
because they can donate blood to any
type.
Type AB+ is referred to as the universal
receiver because they can receive blood
from any type.
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Blood Types
Blood Type
Donate To
Receive From
A-
A-, A+, AB-, and AB+
A- and O-
A
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
A & AB
A , A , O , and O
B-
B-, B+, AB-, and AB+
B- and O-
B+
B+ and AB+
B-, B+, O-, and O+
AB-
AB-
A-, B-, AB-, and O-
AB+
AB+
All blood types
O-
All blood types
O-
O+
A+, B+, AB+, and O+
O- and O+
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Blood Typing Video
http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educatio
nal/landsteiner/index.html
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Blood Donation Facts



In Mississippi, about 60% of the
state’s population is eligible to give
blood, but less than 4% do give blood.
Some examples of the uses of donated
blood are patients who have been in
automobile accidents, who have cancer,
and patients that undergo surgery.
From 1 unit of blood, doctors can
extract red blood cells, platelets, and
plasma.
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References


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
HUMAN BLOOD: An Introduction to Its Components and Types.
ABO Blood Types. Accessed 2006 March 21.
http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/ABO_system.htm
Library.Thinkquest.org. Blood – The River of Life . Accessed 2006
April 4. http://library.thinkquest.org/C0115080/?c=main
Nobelprize.org. Blood Groups, Blood Typing, and Blood
Transfusions. Accessed 2006 March 21.
http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educational/landsteiner/readmore.
html
Nobelprize.org. Blood Groups, Blood Typing, and Blood
Transfusions. Accessed 2006 March 21. Blood Typing Interactive
Movie:
http://nobelprize.org/medicine/educational/landsteiner/index.html
Roodman, G. David. “Blood.” Work Book Encyclopedia vol 2.
Chicago, Il; 2000 ed.
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