China's Cultural Revolution

China’s Cultural Revolution
“The revolutionary war is a war of the masses; it can
be waged only by mobilizing the masses and relying
on them.”
-Mao Zedong, CCP Chairman 1943-1976
Individual Illustration
A theoretical economic system
characterized by the collective
ownership of property and by the
organization of labor for the
common advantage of all members
Background/Why a Revolution?
 Great Leap Forward
 Increase agriculture and industry
 Reforms create communes (700 million people into
26,578 communes)
 Production of steel in “backyard” furnaces
 Steel melted down for construction. Many times tools
were melted down
 Propaganda to set and beat targets of production leads
to lying/over-reporting numbers
Background/Why a Revolution?
 Useless, poor quality steel created and time away from
crops led to bad harvest
 3 year famine (1958-1961) caused by drought,
flooding, poor agricultural techniques
 ~10-30 million dead from starvation or disease
 Mao dislikes shift towards capitalization (the
“capitalist road”)
 Mao urges people to overthrow gov’t
Images of the Great Leap Forward
Plans of Mao Zedong
 Create a true Communist society
 Destroy the “Four Olds” (Ideas, Culture, Customs,
 Rid the government/society of “elites” or “reactionaries”
who threaten Communist goals (Government officials,
teachers, artists, scholars, scientists, or any in
 Spread the Cultural Revolution throughout all of China
 Sending the Red Guard out into the fields to spread
the word/ideas
 Factory workers and elites sent to work the fields
What happened?
 China’s urban youth create the Red Guard (~20 million high
school and college students)
 Schools closed to free students for Red Guard
 Red Guard uses violence and intimidation to spread the
word of Mao
 Individuals beaten, killed, publicly shamed (degrading signs
hung around their necks, made to wear dunce caps)
 Put up posters, banners hung, “Little Red Book”, leaflets and
newspapers distributed
 “Little Red Book”: handbook of quotes to tell readers how
to apply Mao Zedong ideas to their lives
 "Little Red Book" Guidance
What happened?
 Books, artifacts, museums, temples and shrines were
The Red Guard groups began to fight each other thinking
they knew best what China needed to move forward.
Some individuals sent to the countryside to be “re-educated”
by agricultural workers (“To read too many books is
harmful.” -Mao Zedong)
Others sent to the countryside by parents to carry out the
communist goals of Mao
Video of destruction/violence
Red Guard Targets
Red Guard/Students against:
 Administration
 Teachers
 Parents of students
 Students
 Killing spills out into community
Images of the Cultural Revolution
Images of the Cultural Revolution
Effects of the Cultural Revolution
 ~10-40 million dead because of GLF
 Starvation/disease
 Land owners executed/land used for communes
 “Elitists” targeted/beaten and killed
 A generation of uneducated youth (“The Lost
 Recovery began because:
1. Mao gives up control of gov’t
2. Factory managers return from fields to run industry
3. Forced collectivization of agriculture stops
 What is communism? What are some of its characteristics?
 What was the Great Leap Forward? What caused it?
 What was the Cultural Revolution? What caused it?
 What individuals were targets of violence/intimidation?
 Who was targeting these individuals? Why?
 What were the desired affects of the violence?
 What were the actual affects?
 Choose an assignment:
1. You are a newspaper reporter who has immersed him/herself
in the revolution. Write a narrative about what life used to be
like and what it is like post-revolution. What differences to
you see? Use imagery to tell your story.
2. On an unlined sheet of paper draw two pictures. One picture
should illustrate a “before” look at China prior to the Cultural
Revolution. Next to this, an “after” picture of China, showing
a changing/changed country.
Newspaper Article
Heading (First and last name,
date, period) – 2pts
Date of revolution in article
(Month/Day/Year) – 2pts
Explanation of feelings – 2pts
Explanation of surroundings –
4 example of how China or its
people changed – 8pts
2 forms of imagery present –
Heading (First and last name,
date, period) – 2pts
Date of revolution in drawings
(Months/Days/Years) – 2pts
Colored – 2pts
Drawn neatly (quality decided by
me!) – 2pts
2 changes present in drawing –
Short description of pictures =
Explanation of changes and how
they came about in Communist
China – 4pts