The President of the United States is the leader of the United States and the free world, and the “most powerful person on earth.” Let’s look at the president’s roles The Founders wanted a president of limited powers—above parties & factions, to conduct foreign policy & enforce laws Historians have taken pains to rank my 43 predecessors through scholarly and balanced research. Which presidents do you think they rated as great and near great? The President’s Roles The Chief Executive President G. H. W. Bush in Oval Office Controls a huge executive branch of millions of people, but shares power with Congress The president recruits the best people possible to serve in his cabinet—those people who run the executive agencies of the Federal Government. Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces Article II, Section 2 of Constitution With the help of the “Chiefs,” the president controls a massive nuclear arsenal With the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, commands the U. S. military A key part of the president’s job as Commander-in-Chief is crisis management. This photo shows the Kennedy Administration’s meetings during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis It is crucial that during times of crisis the president appear to be a confident, take-charge leader Chief Agenda Setter of the U. S. Government President Obama giving the “non-State of the Union” Address. What is the State of the Union Address? State of the Union Address: A speech that the president gives each January before a joint session of Congress, which sets forth the programs, policies, and legislation that he or she wants Congress to enact. This speech coincides with the submission of the President’s Budget. The president is the chief priority-setter of the United States government—he sets the legislative agenda, often through the submission of the budget each January Representative of the Nation President Bush represents the American People at World Trade Center Ruins The president should be a person who builds the morale of the nation through inspirational actions and symbolic functions Chief of State The president engages in diplomacy. Diplomacy: the art of conducting negotiations with foreign countries. The president is also our nation’s foreign policy leader. Foreign policy: our plans for dealing with other countries. The goals of U. S. foreign policy are to promote trade and friendship with other countries while maintaining the security of the United States. Party Leader Aids candidates, raises money, campaigns Here are some interesting facts about the office of the president. Qualifications: 35 years of age Native born citizen U. S. resident for the last 14 years Until Obama, all presidents have been white, male Christians. Most have been highly educated Today the President presides over: Budget: $1.8 trillion Federal establishment: 2.4 million civilian employees Military: 1.4 million personnel 20,000 deliverable nuclear warheads 278 million people $9.5 trillion GDP 3.8 million square miles of land mass Bully!! The president’s term in office is 4-years and, since the ratification of the 22nd Amendment in 1951, he or she can run for reelection once. President’s salary: $400,000 per year plus a tax free $50,000 allowance for performing official duties I am the third President, Thomas Jefferson. What is presidential succession and what is the current order? Presidential succession: who should fill the presidency and in what order Vice President; Speaker of House; Pres. Pro. Tem of Senate; Sec State; Sec Treasury; Sec Def.; Attorney Gen; Executive Powers include carrying out the laws and appointing officials One way the president enforces laws is through executive orders. What are they? Executive orders are detailed instructions, regulations, and rules that state how to carry out and enforce legislation. They have the force of law. In 1957, I signed an executive order that sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce desegregation of Central High School. Presidents usually provide Congress with information that body requests. But sometimes, presidents refuse to do so, as Richard M. Nixon did in 1973. In that case, Nixon invoked executive privilege. What is that? Executive privilege: the president’s right not to hand over documents or to testify regarding matters that he or she believes are his/her confidential business Diplomatic powers involve the fact that the president is the main person responsible for our nation’s foreign policy President George H. W. Bush meeting with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher The president’s foreign policy role includes making treaties that include peace agreements, trade agreements and forming alliances. What are alliances? Alliances: agreements between 2 or more countries to help each other for defense, economic, scientific or other reasons Presidents, such as Lyndon B. Johnson, right, also can make executive agreements. What are they? More informative understandings between an American president and the leader of a foreign government Presidents can also establish diplomatic recognition. What is that? Determining whether or not the U. S. officially recognizes a government as the proper representative of a country’s people. Military powers: Committing troops—such as when President Bush committed troops to Fight in Iraq Limited by the War Powers Act of 1973 soldiers sent abroad by the president must be brought back within 60 days unless Congress approves the action (Congress approved the war against Iraq) Judicial Powers In addition to nominating federal judges, including Supreme Court justices, presidents can issue reprieves, pardons and commutations. What do each of those terms mean? Reprieve: postpones the carrying out of a person’s sentence in order to gather more evidence or to appeal for a new trial. Before I left office, I issued many pardons: forgiveness to a convicted criminal. It frees that person from serving out his or her sentence. Commutations lessen the severity of a convicted person’s sentence Here are some of the key members of the president’s personal staff. The Chief of Staff manages all of the White House staff and controls access to the president. President Obama’s Chief of Staff is Rahm Emanuel The White House Press Office, led by the Press Secretary, provides key information to the media and conducts press briefings. President Obama’s Press Secretary is Robert Gibbs. The National Security Act of 1947 established the National Security Council (NSC) to improve coordination among the government departments that deal with national security issues. The NSC includes the Director of Central Intelligence (from the CIA) and the Secretaries of State and Defense. The NSC staff is headed by the National Security Advisor, appointed by the president. President Bush’s National Security Advisor is Retired USMC Gen James L. Jones. The Executive Office of the President also includes the Office of Management and Budget, which, among other things, writes the President’s Budget. The Director of the OMB holds cabinet rank. President Obama’s Director is Dr. Peter Orszag. The Executive Office of the President also includes the Council of Economic Advisers and the National Economic Council. Another important member of the Executive Branch is the Vice President, who, today, is Joe Biden. For many years, it was a do nothing job. John Nance Garner: “It’s like a bucket of warm spit.” In recent years, presidents have used the talents and skills of their vice presidents to the benefit of the nation. Wow! She’s some kind of hottie. Why didn’t I hire HER as an intern? That’s right Elle. For example, I used my vice president, Al Gore, to lead the effort to reduce government waste. The president’s wife, today Michelle Obama, is called the First Lady of the Land. In recent years, presidents’ wives have taken an active role in politics. The most active was Hillary Rodham Clinton. In addition to the Executive Office of the President there are 15 cabinet departments led by secretaries or, in the case of the Department of Justice, The Attorney General On the next few pages, we will look at President Obama’s present cabinet. For more information go to http://www.whitehouse.gov/government/cabinet.html Secretary of Agriculture: Tom Vilsack Secretary of Commerce: Gary Locke Secretary of Defense: Robert Gates Secretary of Education: Arne Duncan Secretary of Energy: Steven Chu Secretary of Health & Human Services: Vacant Secretary of Homeland Security: Janet Napolitano Secretary of Housing and Urban Development: Shaun Donovan Secretary of the Interior: Ken Salazar Attorney General: Eric Holder Secretary of Labor: Hilda Solis Secretary of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of Transportation: Ray LaHood Secretary of the Treasury: Timothy Geithner Secretary of Veterans Affairs: Eric Shinseki The Federal Bureaucracy Hey! Which one of you can tell Bruiser the definition of bureaucracy? A highly organized system of people and their work. People who work in a bureaucracy are called: Bureaucrats Let’s discuss things that government agencies do. Advise government officials Make rules and regulations Those regulations have force of law, but they usually carry civil, not criminal, penalties for violations Such regulations are usually found in the Code of Federal Regulations. For example, Title IX required schools to give equal athletic rights to females. Government agencies also implement, or carry out, rules. The U. S. Government also has several independent agencies. What are those? Agencies created by Congress to help the president carry out the work of the executive branch. Independent means separate from cabinet departments. Examples include: The Social Security Administration The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NASA The CIA Also under the Executive Branch are regulatory commissions. What are they? Agencies that act with the least direction from the White House; they are independent agencies that have the power to establish and enforce regulations. Examples include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Some independent agencies are government corporations. What are they? Non-profit businesses The largest government corporation is the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which guarantees peoples’ bank deposits. In all of these Executive Branch agencies, most of the employees are civil servants. Who can define that term? Appointed or non-appointed people employed by the federal government. We have come a long way from the system of hiring those people begun by Andrew Jackson. What system was that? The spoils system Today most civil servants are selected through a process started with the passage of the Pendleton Act of 1883: the merit system. What is that? Federal employees secure their jobs through competitive exams and stay on the job even after new presidents take office. Today almost all non-appointed civil servants get their jobs through testing. I can’t believe how LUCKY you ALL are to have a teacher as HOT as Mr. Simoncini. Appointed officials include high level appointees that must be approved by the Senate and lower level Senior Executive Service (SES) employees that do not require Senate approval. Most non-appointed employees are classified as either General Management (GM) or General Service (GS) and are paid on a scale based on seniority and responsibility.