China in the 20th Century - Brookdale Community College

China in the 20th Century
Sun Yatsen
Mao Zedong
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek)
Deng Xiaoping
20th Century Revolutions
See RGH #84, p. 348
1911 – Republican Revolution
1927 – Nationalist Revolution - GMT
Sun Yatsen and Guomindang (GMT)
Three Principles of the People (Nationalism,
Democracy, a form of Socialism)
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek)
Leader of wartime China
1949 – Communist Revolution - CCP
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communism
See RGH # 86, p. 356
 Role of the peasant – See p. 351
 Long March – 1934-35
Ideas can motivate people to do anything
People’s Liberation Army
 Guerrilla Warfare
 “Can Do Nationalism”
“Why should Chinese fight Chinese, they should fight
Guerrilla Warfare
“Political Power Grows Out of the Barrel of a Gun”
The enemy attacks we retreat.
The enemy camps, we harass.
The enemy tires, we attack.
The enemy retreats, we pursue.
Civil War 1930-1949
Mao vs. Jiang
Why does Mao win and Jiang lose?
See RGH # 87, p. 357
“The Kuomintang is losing the respect and
support of the people. . .the Generalissimo
shows a similar loss of flexibility. . .his growing
megalomania. . .and the desire of the
Kuomintang to perpetuate their own power
overrides any other consideration.”
People’s Republic of China (PRC)
October 1, 1949
“The East is Red, the Sun is Rising”
“Expert and Red”
(follow Soviet
 literacy and social
 Sino-Soviet split 1959
 Taiwan and the
revolution using
ideas to move the
 Great Leap Forward
 Cultural Revolution –
Red Guards 1966-72
 Cultural Revolution--great stuff
Mao "...had experienced the morning-after epiphany common to all
revolutionaries: in victory, the revolution dies. Shades of the prison house
begin to close upon the post-revolutionary state; after the initial
transformative spasm, exhaustion replaces exhilaration, routine replaces
voluntarism, responsibility clogs idealism. Many revolutionary victors are
happy to settle for power and stability. Mao was not. The revolution was
dead; long live the revolution!“
Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, Volume 3: The
Coming of the Cataclysm 1961-1966, p. 469
Deng Xiaoping 1978-1997
“It doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white, as long
as it catches the mouse.”
“To get rich is glorious”
Market totalitarianism
Tiananmen - 1989
China Today
“When China accelerates, the
world follows.”
NYTimes, 10/3/03
Yu Shi Ju Jin (“Look out world, here we come”)
Morgan Stanley ad, NYTimes, 2/18/04