Asexual Reproduction and Meiosis

Name: _________________________
Under the right conditions, the number of bacteria can increase quite quickly. When
bacteria have plenty of food, the right temperature, and other suitable conditions,
they thrive and reproduce frequently. Under these ideal conditions, some bacteria
can reproduce as often as once every 20 minutes. It’s a good thing that growing
conditions for bacteria are rarely ideal. Otherwise, there would soon be no room on
Earth for other organisms!
Asexual Reproduction
Bacteria reproduce by a process called binary fission, in which one cell divides to form
two identical cells. Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction. Asexual
reproduction is a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces
offspring that are identical to the parent. During binary fission, a cell first duplicates its
genetic material and then divides into two separate cells. Each new cell gets its own
complete copy of the parent cell’s genetic material as well as some of the parent’s
ribosomes and cytoplasm.
FIGURE 9Asexual Reproduction Bacteria such as
Escherichia coli reproduce by binary fission.
Each new cell is identical to the parent cell.
Sexual Reproduction
Some bacteria may at times undergo a simple form of sexual reproduction. Sexual
reproduction involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a
new organism, which differs from both parents. During a process called conjugation
(kahn juh GAY shun), one bacterium transfers some of its genetic material into another
bacterium through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cells. After the transfer, the
cells separate. Conjugation results in bacteria with new combinations of genetic
material. When these bacteria divide by binary fission, the new genetic material passes
to the new cells. Conjugation does not increase the number of bacteria. However, it
does result in new bacteria that are genetically different from the parent cells.
Go to page 92-96 in CELLS and HEREDITY for the rest of the question.