Chapter 3 Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution

Chapter 3
Early Humans
and the
Paleolithic Age
• Paleolithic – “Old Stone Age”; time of hunters and
• Nomads – people who move from place to place
• Things made by humans long ago are called artifacts
• Men hunted; women stayed close to camp
• Culture – way of life for a group of people who share
similar beliefs and customs
• Technology – tools and methods to perform tasks
• Climate affected how people lived
Paleolithic Age (cont.)
• Fire
o Life became less difficult
o People gathered around fire to share stories and cook
Language and Art
Spoken language was developed
People expressed themselves through art
Cave paintings have been found all around the world
Ice Age – long period of extreme cold
Low sea levels exposed a “land bridge” connecting Asia and North America
To survive people had to adapt (ex. Increased fat intake)
Neolithic Age
Neolithic – “New Stone Age”; farming revolution
Gradually, farming replaced hunting and gathering
Domesticate – tame animals for human use
Agricultural Revolution – some historians consider it to be
the most important event in human history
Farmers saved some grain to plant
Constant supply of food could be produced
Populations grew faster
Settled communities began forming
Farming spread all over the world
Neolithic Age cont.
• Life in the Neolithic Age
o People settled near water, especially rivers
o Communities grew – people were more secure
o Farmers grew more food than they needed and began to trade this surplus
(amount that is left over)
o Less people were needed to farm so they became artisans or skilled workers; this
is known as specialization or training for a particular job
o Men farmed and women took care of the children
o Bronze – a metal created by mixing copper and tin
• Stronger than copper but expensive; most used tools and weapons made of
• Humans continued to develop more complex cultures, or
ways of life
• These complex cultures are called civilizations
• Four great river valley civilizations began about 3000 BCE –
Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China
• Early civilizations developed cities and formed
• Trade increased – allowed for the exchange of goods
and ideas
• Religions started to help people explain their lives
• People invented ways of writing to pass on information