The Respiratory System : Review #2 - Mr. Lesiuk

NAME: _________________
Date: _____________
The Respiratory System : Review #2
Respiratory System : (Learning Outcomes L5 – L8)
L.O. L – 5 Lungs, Pleural Membranes, Ribs, and Diaphragm
___ 1. What structure makes up the floor of the chest (thoracic) cavity?
___ 2. What is the normal shape of this structure in its relaxed state?
___ 3. What happens to the shape of this muscle when it is stimulated to contract?
___ 4. What happens to the positioning of the rib cage when the intercostal muscles
___ 5. When the ribs and diaphragm contract, what happens to the overall volume of the
thoracic cavity?
___ 6. During this process, compare air pressure that is trying to force its way into the
lungs with the competing competing thoracic cavity pressure back onto the lungs.
L.O. L – 6 Nervous System Control
___ 1. The levels of what two substances are the main stimuli for the chemoreceptors in
the base of the brain to send an impulse to stimulate us to inhale?
___ 2. These chemicals are sensed by chemoreceptors in what part of the brain?
___ 3. Some other chemoreceptors are able to directly detect low blood oxygen
concentration. Give two locations for these chemoreceptors.
____4. Name two key nerves that carry impulses down to the diaphragm and intercostals.
(see figure 15.6)
___ 5. Where are the stretch receptors located that detect that the lungs have fully
___ 6. What happens when these receptors send their message to the Medulla to notify
it that that the lung alveoli are full?
____ 7. Name the nerve that the nerve impulse travels on its way from the stretch
receptors to the Medulla.
L.O. L – 7 Internal and External Respiration
___ 1. During internal respiration as CO2 diffuses into the blood, some of it directly
joins with what molecule, and what is the new combined molecule called?
____2. What happens to the majority of the CO2 that leaves the tissue? (p. 290 –write out
the reaction)
___ 3. Name the enzyme that speeds up the above reaction, and where are these
enzymes located?
___ 4. The hydrogen ions [H+] that are produced during this reaction are taken up by
what molecule, and what is the name of this new combined form of the molecule?
___ 5. During EXTERNAL respiration, oxygen moves from where to where?
___ 6. What changes to the environmental conditions will cause carbaminohemoglobin
(HbCO2) and reduced hemoglobin (HHb) to drop off their CO2 and H+ ions to
form back into deoxyhemoglobin (Hb)?
____7. When oxygen binds onto Deoxyhemoglobin, what name is given to this new form
Of Hemoglobin (Hb) and give its short-hand version or symbol?
___ 8. Back at the lungs, the Hydrogen Ions are picked up by Bicarbonate ions to
undergo a reaction to Produce carbonic acid which will break down into what two
___ 9. What happens to these molecules in order to get rid of them from the body?
___ 10. Explain why Hemoglobin is considered a BUFFER for your blood.
___ 11. Give the chemical formula for a Bicarbonate Ion.
L.O. L – 8 Oxyhemoglobin, Carbaminohemoglobin, and Bicarbonate Ions
___ 1. List three ways that carbon dioxide can be transported by the blood. Give the
percentage that is carried in each method?
___ 2. Carbon Dioxide is mainly carried in the form of what Ion?
___ 3. Where is the partial pressure of Oxygen the greatest: in tissues or in the lung
___ 4. What happens to the amount of oxygen held by hemoglobin when the partial
pressure of oxygen decreases?
___ 5. Where is the partial pressure of oxygen least: in tissues or in lung alveoli?
___ 6. What effect does a slightly lower temperature have on the amount of oxygen
carried by hemoglobin?
___ 7. Where in the circulatory system is the temperature lowest?
____8. Where in the circulatory system is the pH highest?
____9. What happens to Oxyemoglobin when the temperature rises, and pH
lowers at the internal tissues?