PSY 200 Study Guide 1 YOU MAY BRING A STUDY SHEET TO THE EXAM: ONE PAGE, ONE SIDE ONLY HANDWRITTEN, NO XEROXED TEXT You must provide the parscore form for this exam, F-1712-PAR-L (the large pink one): you need to bring your student i.d.; need to use your student number and a pencil. Introduction to Psychology 1. How did the practice of experimental psychology begin? How did it evolve over time? 2. What is structuralism? Functionalism? 3. What are the approaches to psychology? How are they different and similar? 4. What are the theoretical perspectives in psychology? 5. What are the four levels of analysis? Research 6. What is the scientific method? What is a dependent or independent variable? 7. What are the different types of research designs? Give examples on when one type would be more beneficial to use than another? 8. What is the better-than-average effect? 9. In a study, what are some things to be aware of, such as biases, confounding variables, or sample sizes? 10. What are reliability and validity? 11. What is the placebo effect? 12. What is randomization? Why is it important? 13. What is correlation? How do we establish causation? How is experimentation different from correlation? 14. What are the different types of observation research? 15. What is the difference between a population and sample? 16. Give an example of how to do random assignment? 17. What are the methods for collecting data? Biological Foundations 18. Know the structural make-up of a neuron. 19. What are the different types of neurons? 20. What is the central nervous system? What is the autonomic nervous system? 21. What is a neurotransmitter? What are some different types found in the nervous system? 22. What is an antagonist and agonist drug? 23. What are the structures and functions of the brain? What happens is there is damage in each part of the brain? 24. Explain the endocrine system and sympathetic system. 25. How are hormones produced and released? 26. What is the difference between a gene and genome? How do they relate to the environment? 27. What does “nature vs. nurture mean”? 28. What happens to your neurons as you grow older? 29. How does the brain develop as you grow older? 30. How can brain development be effected by substance abuse during development? 31. What are dizygotic and monozygotic twins? 32. What does research with twins allow researchers to do? Development 33. In the movie about Genie, what did the researchers learn about a sensitive period for language learning? What were some of the problems with drawing conclusions from genie’s lack of language? 34. What are phonemes and morphemes in language? 35. What can child neglect or maltreatment do to brain development? 36. What are the various attachment styles? 37. Explain the strange-situation test. 38. What are Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? What happens in each stage? 39. What is conservation? 40. Theory of mind? 41. What are some characteristics of a stage theory in developmental psychology? 42. What are Erikson’s stages of human development? 43. What are the levels of moral development? 44. What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? Stress and Health 45. What are the conditions and origins of stress? 46. What are some factors of a stressful situation that may make it more or less stressful? 47. What is the Biopsychosocial model? 48. What is the fight-or-flight response? What is the tend-and-befriend response? 49. What are the stages of stress response? 50. What is emotion-focused coping, and problem-focused coping? 51. How can your body react when dealt with a lot of stress? 52. What is Oxytocin, and what are its functions? 53. What are some benefits of exercise? 54. What are some good habits that you can do to improve your health and well-being?