Integrated Communication
Chapter 1
Communication- process of using verbal and non verbal messages to generate
meaning within and across various contexts, cultures, and channels
*oral communication skills are most critical
Process- set of constantly changing actions, elements, and functions that bring about
a result
7 Key Elements and Guiding Principles of Effective Communication
1. Self (know thyself)
2. Others (connect with others)
3. Purpose (Determine your purpose)
4. Context (adapt to context)
5. Content (select proper context)
6. Structure (structure your message)
7. Expression (practice successful expression)
Culture- a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, norms, and
social practices, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of
Context- the circumstances and settings in which communication takes place
4 types of integrated communication contexts: psychological, logistical,
interactional, and mediated
Psychological- refers to cultural environment in which you live and communicate.
Logistical- physical characteristics of a communication situation which focuses on a
specific time, place, setting, and occasion
Interactional- type of interaction: one on one or between presenter and audience
Interpersonal: accomplishing a certain goal or maintaining relations
Group: 3 or more people working together to accomplish 1 goal
Presentational: between speaker and audience
Mediated- technology comes in between communicators
MASS COMMUNICATION: between a person and a large group
Media Richness Theory- Examines how the qualities of different media affect
Symbol- don’t have a direct relationship to what they represent
Structure- Organization of a message content
Channels- various physical and electronic media through messages
Guiding principles- communication guide lines focusing on self, others, purpose,
context, content, structure, and expression
Communication models- illustrations that simplify and present the basic elements
of interaction patterns in the communication process.
Linear Communication Models- earliest type of communication model that functions
in only one direction. Source-> message->receiver
Interactive Communication- model including noise and feedback to show that
communication isn’t always a one way street
Feedback- any verbal or non verbal response you can see or hear from others
Noise- internal or external obstacles that prevent a message from reaching the
~External- physical elements in environment that inter fear with
~Internal- thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that inter fear with ability
to focus on message
Source- person/group of people who create a message intended to produce
Receiver- another person who interprets and evaluates your meaning
Encoding- decision making process by which you create a message intended to
produce a particular response
Messages- verbal and non verbal context that generates meaning
Decoding- converts code into form you can understand
Transactional communication model- shows how to send and receive messages at
the same time
Strategies- specific plans of action that help you achieve your communication goal
Skills- ability to accomplish communication goals during interaction
Habits- things you do frequently and for so long you don’t even think about it
Ethics- agree upon standards of right and wrong
Chapter 2
Prepare  Explore by reading  plan/organize draft Review/Revise
3 elements that interact with writing (AKA Rhetorical Triangle)
1. Writer/Speaker
2. Subject
3. Audience
*Focus on personal experience is a reflexive aim
*Focus on explaining subject is an informative aim
*Focus on certain beliefs is a persuasive aim
8 kinds of assignments
1. Writing to reflect: reflections
2. Writing to inform: observations and informative essays
3. Writing to analyze: rhetorical and literary analysis
4. Writing to persuade: casual arguments, evaluation arguments, proposal
Building Credibility-Know what’s at stake, have your readers in mind, think
about alternative solutions and points of view
Chapter 3
ID purpose narrow topic write a working thesisevaluate topic visual
plan or a working outline
*Thesis statement has a subject and an assertion
Chapter 4
Zero draft/ discovery draft
Working outline
Engaging title and introduction
Develop your body paragraphs
Write a strong conclusion
Check your links and between paragraphs
~Conclude with strength: issue a call to action
make a recommendation
give an example
speculate the future
rhetorical question
Chapter 5
Revision is a two step process: REVISING and EDITING
Revising: rewriting segments of your paper
Editing: making sentences sound better and inserting transitions
Evaluate draft
Respond to others
Pay attention to detail last
Revise using your instructor’s comments
Responding to others:
First read- main idea and purpose
Second read- intro, thesis, focus, organization, sources
Third read- audience, style, tone
Chapter 6
2 causes of speaker anxiety: Situation and Person/ Group
Situational Anxiety- state of anxiety caused by new, different, or unexpected
Trait anxiety- internal feeling they carry with them
Communibiology- genetic factors play a role
Condit- situational factors play a role
Speaker Confidence
1. Be prepared
2. Engaged in skills
3. Use positive imagery
4. Apply cognitive restructuring
5. Deep breathing and relaxation
6. Audience centered
7. Practice speaking often
Uncertainty reduction theory- people improve their talking skills with others by
being able to predict audience reactions
5 steps of preparing a speech
1. Analyze audience
2. Developing your topic, thesis and purpose
3. Gathering materials
4. Organizing your main points
5. Practicing your speech
*speech purposes: inform, persuade, entertain
Audience Analysis
 Demographic analysis- statistical characteristics or the group
 Attitude analysis- about topic, speaker, and speech
 Voluntary analysis- something that has drawn them there
 Involuntary analysis- they have to be there
 Accidental analysis- happened to wander there
Chapter 7
Informative speech- to create understanding about a person, thing, event, problem
Persuasive speeches vs. Informative speeches
Speakers intent- clarifying by teaching a specific topic
Supporting info- clarify, add interest, and prove something
Audience info- psychological info picked up by the speaker to relate their topic
*keep in mind cultural differences
Speech introductions
1. catch audience attention
2. build repport by creating a god feeling
3. establish credibility
4. point our benefits
5. clarify central idea
Catch audience attention by…
Startling statement
Unexpected content
Personal anecdote- story that actually happened to you
Build rapport- feeling or liking of closeness
Establish credibility- audience should consider you a good speaker
Point our benefits- show how the audience will benefit
Speech conclusions
Summery of main points
Memorable ending
Speech transitions
Built in repetition helps listener connect dots
Speech outlining
Easier to see your ideas
Easier to organize your thoughts
Easier to get help from others
Types of outlining
1. rough draft- basic structure of speech
2. formal outlining- gather more info and organize it
3. speaking outline- key words and phrases that remind you of the main points
parallel structure- main words are worded similarly grammatically and syntactical
Chapter 8
visual aids are meant to help not distract.
Types of visual aids
FLIP CHART AND POSTERS (no more than 25)
HANDOUTS/OBJECTS ( don’t pass around objects, it distracts from speech)
MARKER BOARDS/CHALK BOARDS (absolute last choice)
COMPUTER GENERATED AIDS (powerpoint/keynote)
AUDIO VISUAL AIDS (videos/sound bites, no longer than 30 seconds)
Guidelines for visual aids
1. strive for perfection
2. strive for simplicity
3. strive for clarity
4. prepare for possible problems
5. focus on audience
Using powerpoint correctly
~don’t use a lot of words
~don’t use all caps
~main points=single words not cx sentences
~all slides should have a title
~use a pleasing background
~think about text color
~use clear font
~limit title words
~pay attention to font size
~use pictures to help people remember
~don’t fear bullets
basic design principles- repetition, contrast, alignments, proximity
Preparing for a specific audience
Delivery nonverbal and verbal
Audience types
Delivery methods
Manuscript scripts: avoid deviation and keep eye contact
Memorize speech: speak as if you hadn’t written It out, PRACTICE LOTS
Impromptu speech: think on your feet
Extemporaneous speech: organized, researched, and practiced
Practicing verbal and non verbal delivery
1. Pick words carefully
2. Eye contact
3. Use facial expressions
4. Monitor posture, gestures, and movement
5. Monitor clothing and grooming
Vocal Delivery
Vocal disfluencies
Practice citing sources
 Don’t just list sources
 Don’t list at the end
 Don’t overlook sources
Practice speech out loud multiple times
Practice speech in multiple ways
Prepare for a Q&A session after
Get to bed early the night before
Be enthusiastic!
Chapter 9
Critical Reader
~look with critical eye
~read actively
Recognizing Fallacies
Fallacies of Logic
* begging the question
* False analogies
*hasty generalizations
*non sequitur (does not follow)
*over simplified
*Post havoc (after this, therefor this)
*slippery slope (one thing causes another)
Fallacies of Emotion
*bandwagon appeals
*name calling
Chapter 10
Rhetorical analysis- take apart and analyze it to find a meaning
Visual analysis- like rhetorical but of a picture
Literary analysis- interpret a text that you share with readers
Writing a Rhetorical Analysis
1. identify purpose
2. examine audience
3. examine author
4. examine larger context
5. analyze rhetorical appeals
6. examine the language and style
Writing a visual analysis
1. choose a visual text that you care about
2. pay close attention to detail
3. provide a frame for understanding
4. go beyond the obvious
Writing Literary Analysis
1. develop an interpretation
2. provide evidence
3. use literary concepts
4. avoid plot summery