Chapter 14

Slides for
Phil Hughes
and Ed Ferrett
Chemical and biological
Health hazards and control
Chemical and biological
Health hazards and control
After reading this chapter you should be able to:
1. recognize the forms of, and classification of, substances
hazardous to health
2. explain the factors to be considered when undertaking a
preliminary assessment of the health risks from substances
commonly encountered in the workplace
3. describe the use and limitations of workplace exposure limits
including the purpose of long-term and short-term exposure
4. distinguish between acute and chronic health effects
5. outline control measures that should be used to reduce the risk
of ill-health from exposure to hazardous substances
6. outline the basic requirements related to disposal of waste and
effluent (and the control of atmospheric pollution)
Figure 14.1 Existing European chemical symbols
and the new GHS International symbols
Figure 14.2 Hazardous substances –
principal routes of entry into the human body
Figure 14.3(a)(b) Upper and lower
respiratory system
Figure 14.4
The nervous system
Figure 14.5
The cardiovascular system
Figure 14.6
Parts of the urinary system
Figure 14.7 The skin – main
structures in the dermis
Figure 14.14 Chemical storage in France which
needs to comply with European standards
Figure 14.9 Product labels and
material safety data sheets
Figure 14.10 Hand pump and stain detectors
Figure 14.11 Common elements
of a simple LEV system
Figure 14.12 Natural ventilation in a building
The principal requirements of PPE are as follows:
• PPE which is suitable for the wearer and
the task
• Compatibility and effectiveness of the
use of multiple PPE
• A risk assessment to determine the
need and suitability of proposed PPE
• A suitable maintenance programme for
the PPE
• Suitable accommodation for the
storage of the PPE when not in use
• Information, instruction and training for the user of PPE
• The supervision of the use of personal protective equipment by
employees and a reporting system for defects
Figure 14.13 Personal
Protective Equipment at Work
Filtering half mask
Compressed air line breathing
apparatus with full-face mask
fitted with demand valve
Half mask re-usable with filters
Figure 14.14 Types of Respiratory
protective equipment
Figure 14.15 Variety of eye
protection goggles
Figure 14.16 Heavy industrial air pollution
Figure 14.17(a) Water pollution
from an oil spillage
Figure 14.17(b) Water pollution
from plastic waste and other solids
Figure 14.18 Wastes collection
Figure 14.19 Electronic waste from developed
countries in Europe under WEEE