LECTURE № 3 Inorganic drugs with acid-base properties. Inorganic official compounds of Carbon, Aluminium, Barium, Silver, which are used in the medical practice Associate prof. Mosula L.M. The plan 1. Inorganic acids as drugs: Hydrochloric acid, Boric acid. 2. Borax - pharmacopoeial preparation of sodium salt of boric acid. 3. Pharmacopoeial preparations of Ammonia: Strong ammonia solution, Dilute ammonia solution. 4. Sodium Bicarbonate. 5. Inorganic drugs of Carbon: Activated Charcoal , Sodium bicarbonate. 6. Inorganic drug of Aluminium: Dried Aluminium hydroxide. 7. Inorganic drug of Barium: Barium sulphate. 8. Inorganic drug of Silver: Silver nitrate. Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 SPU, add. 1 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Hydrochloric Acid Hydrochloric Acid General Notices (Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid, Ph Eur monograph 0002) Acidum hydrochloriсum Аcidum muriaticum HCl 36.46 7647-01-0 DEFINITION Content 35.0 per cent m/m to 39.0 per cent m/m. 35.0 per cent m/m to 39.0 per cent m/m. OBTAINING General industrial method for obtaining hydrogen chloride is synthesis from gases hydrogen H2 and chlorine Cl2. This gases is obtained by electrolysis water solution of sodium chloride: (in the solution is ions of Na+ and Cl–, and dipoles of water Н2О): Cathode (–): Na+; Н2О 2Н2О + 2е 2ОН– + Н2 (reduction) Anode (+): Cl– ; Н2О 2Cl– – 2e Cl2 (oxidution) General reaction: 2NaCl + 2HOH H2 + Cl2 + 2NaOH cathode anode Obtained gases to burn in the contact furnace: Н2 + Сl2 = 2НCl Obtained gas (HCl) to pass through absorption tower with water - hydrogen chloride (HCl –gas) freely soluble in water, and formed Hydrochloric acid with concentration 35–37 %, it is fuming hydrochloric acid. Saturated at t =18 С solution of Hydrochloric acid has 42 % gas hydrogen chloride. CHARACTERS Appearance Clear, colourless, fuming liquid. Solubility Miscible with water. Relative density About 1.18. IDENTIFICATION A. (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). Dilute with water R. The solution is strongly acid (2.2.4). Tabl. Relationship between reaction of solution, Approximate ph and colour of certain. B. (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). It gives the reactions of chlorides (2.3.1). HCl + AgNO3 → AgCl↓ + НNO3; Cl– + Ag+ → AgCl↓ AgCl↓ + 2NH4OH → [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O. B. (BrPh, SPU). Reaction with potassium dichromate in the sulphuric -acid medium. Э14HCl + K2Cr2O7 = 3Cl2 + 2CrCl3 + 2KCl + 7H2O Cr2O72– + 14H+ + 6е 2Cr3+ + 7Н2О 2Cl– – 2е Cl2 NH O C NH diphenylcarbazide (colourless) NH NH C 6H5 + CL 2 C 6H5 -2 HCl N O N C 6H5 + CL2 C NH NH C 6H5 -2 HCl diphenylcarbazone O N N C 6H5 N N C 6H5 C diphenylcarbadiazone (orange-yellow) C. (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). It complies with the limits of the assay. (violet-red) ASSAY (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). Alkalimetry, direct titration HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O Еm(HCl) = M. m. STORAGE In a stoppered container made of glass or another inert material, at a temperature not exceeding 30 °C. Preparation Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Dilute Hydrochloric Acid General Notices (Ph Eur monograph 0003) Acidum hydrochloricum dilutum Ph Eur HCl SPU, add 1 DEFINITION Content 9.5 per cent m/m to 10.5 per cent m/m of HCl (Mr 36.46). PREPARATION To 726 g of water R add 274 g of concentrated hydrochloric acid and mix. IDENTIFICATION the same as Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid. ASSAY Alkalimetry, direct titration Action and use Agent, which regulated metabolic processes. 0,3–0,5 % HCl use at insufficient gastric acidity. Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Boric Acid SPU Boric Acid General Notices (Ph Eur monograph 0001) Acidum boricum H3BO3 61.8ээ10043-35-3 Ph Eur DEFINITION Content 99.0 per cent to 100.5 per cent. OBTAINING Interaction hot hydrochloric acid (or sulphuric acid) with tetraborates (borax Na2B4O710H2O or boron-calcite СаB4O74H2O) (for medicinal purposes): Na2B4O710H2O + 2HCl = 4Н3ВО3 + 2NaCl + 5H2O СаB4O74H2O + 2HCl + Н2О = 4Н3ВО3 + СаCl2 Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + 5H2O = 4Н3ВО3 + Na2SO4 CHARACTERS Appearance White or almost white, crystalline powder, colourless, shiny plates greasy to the touch, or white or almost white crystals. Solubility Soluble in water and in ethanol (96 per cent), freely soluble in boiling water and in glycerol (85 per cent). IDENTIFICATION эA. (BrPh, SPU). Bromomethyl ester formation. Dissolve 0.1 g by gently heating in 5 ml of methanol R, add 0.1 ml of sulphuric acid R and ignite the solution. The flame has a green border. Н3ВО3 + 3СН3ОН (СН3О)3В + 3Н2О B. (BrPh, SPU). Interaction with indicators. Solution S (see Tests) is acid (2.2.4). ASSAY (BrPh, SPU). Alkalimetry, direct titration. Dissolve 1.000 g with heating in 100 ml of water R containing 15 g of mannitol R. Titrate with 1 M sodium hydroxide, using 0.5 ml of phenolphthalein solution R as indicator, until a pink colour is obtained. 1 ml of 1 M sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 61.8 mg of H3BO3. NaOH + Н3ВО3 = NaВО2 + 2H2O NaВО2 + 2H2O = Н3ВО3 + NaOH. If titrate only with 1 M sodium hydroxide without mannitol R then the medium becomes alkaline before end point that is drug substance is titrated not completely. For intensification of acid properties of boric acid add polyatomic alcohol - mannitol (hexatomic alcohol, it formatted with boric acid complex compound. Then the complex compound titrate with 1 M sodium hydroxide: _ _ CH2OH HO H HO H H3BO3 + 2 CH2OH - 3H2O + HO H H OH HO H H OH H H OH H OH H OH H O CH2OH CH2OH HO H O H CH2OH NaOH Na + HO H H OH HO H H OH + H2O. H OH H O B CH2O CH2O HO H O H B Em (Н3ВО3) = М.m. Action and use. CH2OH CH2O Antiseptic agent. CH2O Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Borax SPU Borax General Notices Sodium Borate; Sodium Tetraborate (Ph Eur monograph 0013) Natrii tetraboras Natrium tetraboriсum Na2B4O7,10H2Oэ э381.4ээ1303-96-4 Ph Eur DEFINITION Disodium tetraborate decahydrate. Content 99.0 per cent to 103.0 per cent of Na2B4O7,10H2O. CHARACTERS Appearance White or almost white, crystalline powder, colourless crystals or crystalline masses, efflorescent. Solubility Soluble in water, very soluble in boiling water, freely soluble in glycerol. IDENTIFICATION A. (BrPh, SPU). Bromomethyl ester formation. B. (BrPh, SPU). Action the water solution of borax on indicators. To 5 ml of solution S add 0.1 ml of phenolphthalein solution R. The solution is red. On the addition of 5 ml of glycerol (85 per cent) R the colour disappears. Water solution of borax owing to hydrolysis has the alkaline reaction (pН 7): Na2B4O7 + 7HOH = 2NaOH + 4H3BO3 pН = 9,0 - 9,6 At addition glycerol to water solution of borax there is formation boron-glyceric acid and the CH2OH has acid reaction of medium (colouring HOCH2 CH2OH of phenolphthalein solution solution disappears): HO + 2 CHOH + HO CH2OH H B OH HC O H2C O + O CH B 3 H2O O CH2 C. (BrPh, SPU). Solution S gives the reactions of sodium (2.3.1). H2C OH H2C OH HO CH HO CH + Na2B4O7 8 HC OH 1 м ол ь 2 HO CH HC OH HO CH HC OH H + HC OH HC OH HC O H2C OH H2C O H2C OH + 2 H HO CH B HO CH HC OH HC OH Na HC OH HC O O CH2 H2C O HO CH HC OH HC OH HO CH B + + 2 NaOH 2 mol + 7H2O HO CH B O CH O CH2 H2C OH HO CH2 HC OH H2C O +2 HO CH2 HO CH O CH HO CH HC O H2C OH HO CH2 HO CH2 HO CH HC OH + HO CH HC OH 2 Na HC OH O CH HC O O CH2 H2C O HO CH B O CH O CH2 + 2 H2O ASSAY (BrPh, SPU). Alkalimetry mannitol solution of borax. H2C OH + 2 H HO CH HC OH HO CH HC OH HC OH HC O HO CH B H2C O 2 NaOH + Na2B4O7 HC OH 1 m o l 2 HC OH + HO CH HC OH 2 Na HC OH O CH HC O O CH2 H2C O HO CH HC OH HC O H2C OH H2C O + HC OH H HC OH HO CH B HO CH B +2 + 2 H2O O CH O CH2 H2C OH HO CH2 HC OH HO CH2 HO CH 2 mol HO CH HO CH 8 + H2C OH H2C OH HO CH H2C OH HO CH2 HO CH2 HO CH HC OH HO CH HC OH Na HC OH O CH HC O O CH2 H2C O HO CH B Em(Na2B4O7∙ 10H2O) = M.m./2 O CH STORAGE. Protected from air. Action and use. Antiseptic agent. O CH2 + + 7H2O ? Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Dried Aluminium Hydroxide General Notices Dried Aluminium Hydroxide (Hydrated Aluminium Oxide, Ph Eur monograph 0311) Aluminii hydroxydum Al(OH)3 Algeldratum* Argilla pura Aluminium hydroxydatum DEFINITION Content 47.0 per cent to 60.0 per cent of Al2O3 (Mr 102.0). CHARACTERS Appearance White or almost white, amorphous powder. Solubility Practically insoluble in water. It dissolves in dilute mineral acids and in solutions of alkali hydroxides. IDENTIFICATION (BrPh, SPU). Solution S (see Tests) gives the reaction of aluminium (2.3.1). Aluminium Salts Dissolve about 15 mg of the substance to be examined in 2 ml of water R or use 2 ml of the prescribed solution. Add about 0.5 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid R and about 0.5 ml of thioacetamide reagent R. No precipitate is formed. Add dropwise dilute sodium hydroxide solution R. A gelatinous white precipitate is formed which dissolves on further addition of dilute sodium hydroxide solution R. Gradually add ammonium chloride solution R. The gelatinous white precipitate is reformed. Al(OH)3 + 3HCl = AlCl3 + 3H2O solution AlCl3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl gelatinous white precipitate Al(OH)3 + 3NaOH = Na3[Al(OH)6] precipitate dissolves Na3[Al(OH)6] + 3NH4Cl = Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl + 3NH4OH gelatinous white precipitate is re-formed ASSAY (BrPh). Chelatometry, back titration. Other method – Gravimetry. Shot of test substance of Al(OH)3 dry, fry to constant mass and lower (weight or gravimetric form – Al2O3): 2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3Н2О Calculate content clear Al(OH)3 in the preparation by formula: m(Al 2 O 3, )there F % m(Al(OH ) 3 ) 100 % F – gravimetric factor, calculate by formula: F 2M ( Al (OH ) 3 . M ( Al 2O3) STORAGE In an airtight container , at a temperature not exceeding 30 °C. Action and use Antacid. Preparations Aluminium Hydroxide Tablets Co-magaldrox Oral Suspension Co-magaldrox Tablets Compound Magnesium Trisilicate Tablets Ph Eur Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009b British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Barium Sulphate SPU, add. 1 Barium Sulphate General Notices (Ph Eur monograph 0010) Barii sulfas Barii sulfas pro roentgeno Barium sulfuricum pro roentgeno BaSO4 ээ233.4ээ7727-43-7 OBTAINING 1. From nature mineral barite ВаSО4 Stages: а) Barite ВаSО4 reduction by coal С at fry to barium sulphide ВаS: BaSO4 + 2С = ВаS + 2CO2 б) Processing by hydrochloric acid HCl; soluble salt of barium chloride BaCl2 is formed: BaS + 2HCl = H2S + BaCl2 в) Precipitation of BaSO4 by sodium sulphate Na2SO4, or magnesium sulphate MgSO4 or sulphatic acid H2SO4: BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl That BaSO4 will be superfine, solutions must be very dilute, and beside, add protective colloid (linseed or linseed mucilage) for slowly precipitation of BaSO4. Precipitate of BaSO4 screen wash by water (for inadmissible impurities of Chlorides: soluble salt BaCl2 is toxic). Thus wash off and impurities of Sulphates SO42–. CHARACTERS Appearance Fine, white or almost white powder, free from gritty particles. Solubility Practically insoluble in water and in organic solvents. It is very slightly soluble in acids and in solutions of alkali hydroxides. IDENTIFICATION эA. (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). Boil a suspension of 0.2 g with 5 ml of a 500 g/l solution of sodium carbonate R for 5 min, add 10 ml of water R, filter and acidify a part of the filtrate with dilute hydrochloric acid R. The solution gives the reactions of sulphates (2.3.1). BaSO4 + Na2CO3 BaCO3 + Na2SO4 carbonization white precipitate on the filter Sulphates A. (BrPh, SPU). Reaction with barium chloride solution in the hydrochloricacid medium. Dissolve about 45 mg of the substance to be examined in 5 ml of water R or use 5 ml of the prescribed solution. Add 1 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid R and 1 ml of barium chloride solution R1. A white precipitate is formed. Na2CO3 + 2HCl = NaCl + H2O + CO2 Na2SO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4 + 2NaCl white precipitate B. (BrPh). To the suspension obtained during reaction (a), add 0.1 ml of 0.05 M iodine. The suspension remains yellow (distinction from sulphites and dithionites), but is decolorised by adding dropwise stannous chloride solution R (distinction from iodates). Boil the mixture. No coloured precipitate is formed (distinction from selenates and tungstates). B. (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). Reaction with sulphuric acid. Wash the residue collected in the preceding test with 3 successive small quantities of water R. To the residue add 5 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid R, filter and add to the filtrate 0.3 ml of dilute sulphuric acid R. A white precipitate is formed that is insoluble in dilute sodium hydroxide solution R. BaCO3 + 2HCl = BaCl2 + H2O + CO2 BaCl2+ H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2HCl white precipitate OTHER REACTION: Pyrochemical reaction. All salts of Barium burns a yellow-green colour. 2. Reaction with solution of potassium chromate K2CrО4 or potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7; yellow precipitate of BaCrО4 is formed: Ba2+ + CrО42– = BaCrО4 ASSAY in the Pharmacopoeia is not presents. Not Pharmacopoeial method – Ion-exchange chromatography. Heating BaSO4 in the water at t 70–80 С with ion-exchange resin H-type (cation exchanger) during 12 hour. Occurrence cation exchange: cations of Barium Ba2+ adsorbs on cation exchanger, in the filtrate occurres equivalent quantity of sulphuric acid: BaSO4 + 2H- cation exchanger Ba- cation exchanger + H2SO4\ H2SO4, which formed in the filtrate, titrate with 0,1 М sodium hydroxide NaOH, as indicator use phenolphthalein and titrate until occirence pink colour. H2SO4 + 2NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2H2O Em(BaSO4 ) = М. m./2 Action and use Radio-opaque substance used in the investigation of the gastro-intestinal tract. Preparation Barium Sulphate for Suspension. Ph Eur Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Silver Nitrate SPU, add. 1 Silver Nitrate General Notices (Ph Eur monograph 0009) Argenti nitras Argentum nitricum Lapis infernalis AgNO3 ээ169.9ээ7761-88-8 DEFINITION Content 99.0 per cent to 100.5 per cent. OBTAINING 1. Dilution Silver in the 25% solution of nitric acid: 3Ag + 4HNO3 = 3AgNO3 + NO + 2H2O 2. Dilution Cu-Al alloy in the nitric acid at heating: AgCu + 4HNO3 AgNO3 + Cu(NO3)2 + NO + 2H2O Obtained Silver nitrate is nessesery to clear from impurities. CHARACTERS Appearance White or almost white, crystalline powder or transparent, colourless crystals. Solubility Very soluble in water, soluble in ethanol (96 per cent). IDENTIFICATION A. (BrPh, SPU). 10 mg gives the reaction of nitrates (2.3.1). Nitrates : Reaction with nitrobenzene in the presence of sulphuric acid. To a mixture of 0.1 ml of nitrobenzene R and 0.2 ml of sulphuric acid R, add a quantity of the powdered substance equivalent to about 1 mg of nitrate (NO3–) or the prescribed quantity. Allow to stand for 5 min. Cool in iced water and add slowly and with mixing 5 ml of water R, then 5 ml of strong sodium hydroxide solution R. Add 5 ml of acetone R. Shake and allow to stand. The upper layer is coloured deep violet. Not pharmacopoeial reactions: 1. Interaction with diphenylamine in the acid medium (conc. H2SO4) with formation organic dye dark blue colour (analogical to Nitrites-ions, see NaNO2): diphenylbenzidine sulphoimmonium salt of diphenylbenzidine (dye with dark blue colour) 2. Interaction with iron(ІІ) sulphate solution FeSO4 in the concentrated sulphatic-acid medium H2SO4; brown ring (FeSO4NO) is formatted (in the clock glass): 2NaNO3 + 6FeSO4 + 4H2SO4 = 2NO + 3Fe2(SO4)3 + Na2SO4 + 4H2O NO + Fe2+ + SO42– [Fe(NO)]SO4 This reaction is possible to make in the tube: to solution of drug add conc. H2SO4, then add iron(ІІ) sulphate solution FeSO4. On the joint two liquids dark-brown ring of unstable compound FeSO4NO is formed. Chemism: 2AgNO3 + H2SO4 = Ag2SO4 + 2HNO3 HNO3 + 3H2SO4 + 6FeSO4 = 3Fe2(SO4)3 + 2NO + 4H2O FeSO4 + NO = FeSO4NO B. (BrPh, SPU). 10 mg gives the reaction of silver (2.3.1). Silver and Silver Compounds: Reaction with hydrochloric acid. Dissolve about 10 mg of the substance to be examined in 10 ml of water R or use 10 ml of the prescribed solution. Add 0.3 ml of hydrochloric acid R1. A curdled, white precipitate is formed that dissolves on addition of 3 ml of dilute ammonia R1. AgNO3 + HCl = AgCl + HNO3 AgCl + 2NH4OH = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + 2H2O From all insoluble halogenides of Silver only for AgCl is characteristic solution in the ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3 : AgCl + (NH4)2CO3 = [Ag(NH3)2]Cl + H2O + CO2 Not pharmacopoeial reactions: 1. Reaction of “silver mirror” At addition to ammoniac solution of silver nitrate AgNO3 (Tolens reagent) formaldehyde solution and heating after fixed time on the tube wall metallic silver scurf in the form of “silver mirror” is formed: 2AgNO3 + 2NH4OH = [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 + 2H2O HCНO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]NO3 + H2O = 2Ag + HCOONH4 + NH3 + 2NH4NO3 2. Reaction with potassium chromate solution At addition to silver nitrate solution AgNO3 solution of potassium chromate K2CrО4 orange-red precipitate of silver chromate Ag2CrО4, is formed. This precipitate is soluble in the HNO3 and NH4OH, almost insoluble in the CH3COOH: AgNO3 + K2CrО4 = Ag2CrО4 + 2KNO3 ASSAY (BrPh, SPU, add. 1). Thiocyanatometry, direct titration. Dissolve 0.300 g in 50 ml of water R, add 2 ml of dilute nitric acid R and 2 ml of ferric ammonium sulphate solution R2. Titrate with 0.1 M ammonium thiocyanate until a reddishyellow colour is obtained. 1 ml of 0.1 M ammonium thiocyanate is equivalent to 16.99 mg of AgNO3. AgNO3 + NH4SCN = AgSCN + NH4NO3 3NH4SCN + FeNH4(SO4)2 = Fe(SCN)3 + 2(NH4)2SO4 Em (AgNO3) = M.m. STORAGE In a non-metallic container, protected from light. Ph Eur Action and use Antiseptic. Preparation Sterile Silver Nitrate Solution Ph Eur Browse: British Pharmacopoeia 2009 British Pharmacopoeia Volume I & II Monographs: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Substances Colloidal Silver for External Use Colloidal Silver for External Use General Notices (Ph Eur monograph 2281) ээээ9015-51-4 Action and use Antibacterial. Ph Eur DEFINITION Colloidal metallic silver containing protein. Content 70.0 per cent to 80.0 per cent of Ag (dried substance). CHARACTERS Appearance Green or bluish-black metallic shiny flakes or powder, hygroscopic. Solubility Freely soluble or soluble in water, practically insoluble in ethanol (96 per cent) and in methylene chloride. STORAGE In an airtight container . Ph Eur Inorganic preparations of Carbon Carbon - main component of vegetative and animal organisms. In earth crust and the nature meets as in a free kind (graphite, diamond), it is artificial origin - carbin (in USSR) and bakebol (USA), and as a part of minerals - carbonates: CaCO3 - calcite; MgCO3 - magnesite; CaCO3ЧMgCO3 dolomite; FeCO3 - siderite, iron spar; (CuOH) 2CO3 malachite. In air 0,03 % of carbonic gas CO2 contain. In medical practice apply absorbent coal (coal activated), sodium hydrocarbonate, carbon (IV) oxide.. Carbo activatus Obtaining Activated charcoal С Coal - a product of decomposition of organic substances. 1. Coal of an animal origin - Carbo animalis, bone coal (roasting bones of animals), blood coal (blood roasting). Such coal contains to 80 % of ashes (mineral salts, Сa3 (PO4) 2) and only 7-10 % of coal ©. For clearing of coal of an animal origin from ashes, process it the acids, which excess wash away water, and then dry. After such processing animal coal already contains of ashes only 5-6 % and to 90 % C, shows high adsorption ability. 2. Coal of a phytogenesis (vegetable origin) (charcoal) obtain pyrolysis of wood of hardwood of trees without air access. Such coal has a small amount of ashes (to 6 %), therefore does not require additional processing, as coal of an animal origin. 3. Absorbent coal (Coal activated). For obtaining of coal activated, applied in medicine, wood or animal coal to processing superheated water steam (at 100 °С). Thus a time pores is cleared of resinous impurities, the internal surface considerably increases and consequently increases adsorption ability. One g coal has an internal surface to 1000 m2; an ultrapores in diameter approximately 10-9 m playing an active role in the process of adsorption; a micropores in diameter 10-3-10-5 m). It adsorbs on the surface various substances, in particular heavy metals, phenols, spirits, dyes etc. Adsorption ability can be increased, adding a debonder (process of solution ZnCl2, MgCl2, NaOH or H3PO4 with the subsequent heating to 300-400 °С); thus water steam (H2O) reacts with the added substances (ZnCl2, MgCl2) with formation of gas HCl which disappears and loosens coal, increasing a surface of a pores. Properties Coal activated represents a black powder without a smell and taste. It is insoluble in water and other solvents. High quality The coal activated contains impurity ZnO, MgO. Also the maintenance of impurity of chlorides Cl 2–, SO 4 sulphates heavy metals, Fe, As is regulated. 2–, S There should not be impuriy of sulphides 2–, – СО CN 3 carbonates cyanides (inadmissible impurity). Their revealing: Application. Adsorbing means. Apply as adsorbing means at food intoxications (sausage poison, mushrooms) and at diseases of a gastroenteric path (at the raised acidity and fermentation in a stomach) - doses 0,5-1 g 3-4 times a day, and also at poisonings of alkaloids, salts of heavy metals - doses 20-30 g on (single, one-time) in the form of a suspension in water. Release forms Tablets of coal activated Tabulеttae Carbonis actiwati 0,25 aut 0,5. Consist: coal activated - 0,25 or 0,5 g Auxiliary substances - enough. Tablets – Carbolenum. (73% C, 10%sugar, 12% starch, 5% NaCl). Sodium hydrocarbonate Natrii hydrocarbonas NaHCO3 Natrium hydrocarbonicum Natrium bicarbonicum Baking soda HO C NaO O Obtaining 1. Rose's method (1801): interaction of carbonic gas CO2 with crystal soda Na2CO3.10 H2O: Na2CO3.10 H2O + CO2 → NaHCO3 + 9H2O 2. Leblan's method (french a doctor, 1791): obtaining of soda from sodium chloride NaCl, however it is polluted by impurity of chlorides, calcium sulphide CaS and demands corresponding clearing. 2. Solve's ammoniac method (belgian engineer, 1863, more economic method): the concentrated solution of sodium chloride NaCl sate with ammonia NH3 at cooling and simultaneously under pressure pass through it carbonic gas CO2: NH3 + CO2 + H2O = NH4HCO3 NH4HCO3 + NaCl = NH4Cl + NaHCO3 Properties The description. White crystal powder without a smell, the salty-alkaline taste, steady in a dry premise, slowly decays in damp air. At heating to 270 °С with formation carbonate sodium completely decays: 2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2+ H2O Therefore weight loss at calcining (frying), makes not less than 36,6 % (CO2+ H2O). At temperature 70 °С in a water solution double salt Na2CO3*NaHCO3 is formed, and at 100 °С - Na2CO3. . Solubility. Soluble in water, practically insoluble in 95 % alcohol. Water solutions have alkalescent reaction (рН = 8,37), caused by salt hydrolysis: NaHCO3 + НОН NaОН + CO2+ H2O HCO3 – + НОН ОН– + Н2CO3 Identification 1. Reactions of Na+ (see NaF) 2. Reactions of hydrocarbonate-ion HCO3–: а) SPU. Interaction with acetic acid СН3СООН NaHCO3 + СН3СООН = СН3СООNa + CO2↑ + H2O CO2 + Ва(ОН)2 = BaCO3↓ + H2O BaCO3 + 2HCl = BaCl2 + CO2 + H2O b) SPU, N. Reaction with saturated solution of magnesium sulphate MgSO4 at the boiling: 2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O 4MgSO4 + 4Na2CO3 + 4H2O = 3MgCO3.Mg(ОН)2.3H2O↓ + 4Na2SO4 + CO2 c) SPU, N Solution colouring by means of phenolphtalein. To a water solution of a preparation add a solution of phenolphtalein; the solution remains colourless or becomes poorly pink (difference from the carbonates which solutions get red colouring). By means of reactions is possible in the conditions of a drugstore to distinguish hydrocarbonates from carbonates. ASSAY. Acidimetry, direct titration T – standart solution of HCl Ind – methyl orange Titrate until pink colour. NaHCO3 + HCl = NaCl + CO2 + H2O Em(NaHCO3) = M.м. If in a preparation there is an impurity of sodium carbonate Na2CO3 results will be overestimated. Storage. In well corked banks, in a cool and dry place. Under the influence of damp air passes in sodium a carbonate. Application. Antiacid agent. Apply sodium a hydrocarbonate in quality antiacid agent at the raised acidity of gastric juice, a stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenum.. However at neutralization of hydrochloric acid carbonic gas which again stimulates secret allocation is allocated. Therefore it accept together with enveloping and adsorbing substances which reduce this collateral action. Accept inside in mixtures in quality expectorant in powders (0,5-1 g) some times in day. outwardly apply in the form of 0,5-2 % of water solutions to inhalations, washings, rinsings a nose, stomatitises, a laryngitis. Use 2 %-s' solution of baking soda for washing of eyes and mucous membrane of the top respiratory ways at hit on them of acids. At expressed acidosis enter intravenously - 50-100 ml 3-5 % solutions. Release forms: a powder, tablets of sodium of hydrocarbonate Tabulettes Natrii hudrocarbonas 0,3 aut 0,5; a solution of sodium of a hydrocarbonate 5 %-s' for injection, suppository - 0,3, 0,5 and 0,7 g. Thanks for attention!