Terms Definitions List four ways people can affect a food web. 1. Overfishing 2. Deforestation-cutting down trees 3. Pesticides 4. Pollution of oceans and rivers How do plants get their water? Plants get their water from the soil through their roots. chlorophyll The green substance found in plants that traps energy from the sun and gives plants their green color. carbon dioxide A gas found in the air. Example: Plants use the sun, carbon dioxide, and water to make sugar. photosynthesis A process by which plants change light energy from the sun and use it to make sugar. ecosystem All the living and nonliving things in an environment and how they interact. Ecosystems contain both living and nonliving things. Examples: Forest, rocks, your backyard habitats A place where an animal or a plant lives. Habitats provide food, water, and shelter for survival. Example: Whale's habitat is the ocean. A squirrel's habitat is the forest/trees. producer A living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar. Example: Plants are producers consumer A living thing that gets energy by eating plants and other animals. Example: Animals are consumers. herbivore A consumer that eats plants. Example: Chipmunks and rabbits omnivore A consumer that eats both plants and other consumers. Example: Crows eat dead animals, corn, and wheat. Flying squirrels eat insects and nuts. scavenger An animal that eats dead animals. Example: Vultures decomposers A consumer that puts materials from dead plants and animals back into the soil, air, and water. Examples: Fungi and worms food chain The flow of energy through a community. Example: Sungrass-cricket-frog-snake (notice the sun is always first). predator An animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. Example: The garter snake is a predator to the frog because it will eat the frog (the frog is the prey). prey The animals that predators hunt. Example: The grasshopper is prey to the frog because the frog will eat the grasshopper. food web All the food chains in a community What would create a change in the food web? If pesticides kill the grasshoppers there won't be as many frogs. As a result, there won't be as many snakes. adaptation Any structure of behavior that helps a living thing meet its need for survival. Examples: The cactus has a long, shallow root that can absorb a great deal of water quickly. camouflage Any coloring, shape, or pattern that allows a living thing to blend into its surroundings. Example: The Timber wolf's coloring allows it to hide among the trees and sneak up on its prey. What are some things that can make living things become endangered or extinct? Changes in habitat, hunting, and pollution can make some living things become extinct or endangered. Living in groups makes it easier for animals to get food, water, and protection. Scientists give names to groups of animals. Name some groups. Herd of buffalo, school of fish, hive of bees, pride of lions, and a colony of meerkats and ants migration The movement of an animal from one location to another as the seasons change. Example: Monarch butterflies, sea turtles, and gray whales all migrate long distances each year. hibernation Why do some animals hibernate in the winter? A long, deep sleep in which an animal's heart rate and breathing are much slower than normal. Examples: Brown bears, ground squirrels. Animals hibernate to adapt to environmental changes. symbiosis A special way in which two different kinds of living things live together. Example: Giraffe and Oxpeckers. Oxpeckers land on the backs of giraffes in search of ticks and fleas to eat. parasite A plant or animal that feeds off another living things and harms it. Example: The flea that lives on a dog is a parasite. host A plant or animal that is harmed by a parasite. Example: The dog that has a flea on it is host. pollution Anything harmful added to the air, land, or water endangered Having a population that is falling low in number and that is in danger of becoming extinct. Examples: Panda bears, Condors extinct No longer existing. Facts about fossils Fossils such as bones, shells, and footprints provide information about organisms that lived long ago. conductor A material through which electric current passes easily is a condutor. Tip: Think of a train conductor. Example: Metal is a good conductor. insulator A material through which an electric current does not pass easily is an insulator. Ex: Plastic and rubber are good insulators. gills Organs for breathing found in fish and amphibians amphibian One of a large group of animals with backbones that live part of their lives in water and part on land. Examples: Salamander, frog, toad, newt reptiles An animal with a backbone that has dry, scaly skin. Reptiles are cold-blooded. They reproduce by laying eggs or giving birth to live young. Ex: Alligators and snakes birds/facts Birds are warm-blooded animals that have backbones and feathers covering their bodies. Their bones are lightweight because they are hollow. mammals An animal with a backbone that usually has hair on its body and feeds milk to its young. Most mammals give birth to live young and care for their young. Examples: Pandas, horses, elephants, gorillas, cats, behavior The way a living thing acts. Examples: Dogs bark, cats meow, and birds build nests instinct A behavior that an animal is born with and does not need to learn. Example: Squirrel burying its nuts reflex A simple, automatic behavior stimulus The cause of a behavior response A behavior caused by a stimulus. Example: The dog wagging its tail after it gets fed. insects Insects and other animals with jointed legs have different numbers of legs and body parts. Insects have three body parts. The body parts of an insect are the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. How do scientists group animals? Scientists group animals into two large groups-animals with backbones and animals without backbones What can baby animals inherit from their parents? Baby animals can inherit certain traits from their parents but can differ in color, kind of hair, and other characteristics. Fact: Animals All animals produce young either by laying eggs or giving birth to live babies. chemical change A change to a substance that produces one or more new substances. Example: paper burning classify To group organisms based on their traits deposition The dropping of sediments in a new location. As water and wind slow down, they drop, or deposit, sediments. erosion The carrying away of weathered rocks, or sediments. Water, wind and glaciers can cause erosion. growth An increase in size gravity A force that attracts objects to each other. The force of gravity holds you to Earth's surface. graduated cylinder A tool used to measure the volume of liquids hypothesis A possible answer to a scientific question: an idea about what might happen in an experiment friction A force that works against motion, such as the force between a bicycle's tires and a sidewalk. (Friction can cause heat) precipitation The stage in the water cycle in which water falls back to Earth's surface. It may be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail, or drizzle. germination The sprouting of a plant mechanical energy Energy related to motion. Ex: Riding a bicycle weathering The breaking down of rocks by wind and water into sediments that can be carried away kinetic energy The energy of a moving object (Swinging on a swing) life cycle All of the stages of growth and development an organism goes through during its lifetime The sun is classified as a star About how long does it take for Earth to make one revolution around the Sun? One year Which two life processes occur in both plants and humans? Growing and reproducing Seeds can be carried or dispersed by... the wind, people (attached to their clothes), animals, or water.