Planning and Evaluating Effective Practice with e

advertisement
Designing
Technology Enhanced
Learning activities
PGCAPP U6 Workshop 3
Geraldine Jones
[email protected]
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How do people learn? Review of the place of
learning theory in activity design.
What helps people learn more effectively?
Principles of effective pedagogic design.
What works in practice? – Case study analysis.
What does the technology contribute? Typology of
technologies for learning. Examples Lecture
Capture, Moodle for Peer assessment.
How can I approach the design of technology
enabled activities? Design task with JISC effective
practice planner.
1. How do people learn?
Three approaches to understanding learning
Three (and a half) approaches to
understanding learning

People learn by association: building ideas or skills step-by-step
 e.g. mnemonics, training drills, imitation, instruction
 associative learning leads to accurate reproduction or recall

People learn by constructing ideas and skills through active discovery
 e.g. exploration, experimentation, guided discovery, problem-solving, reflection
 constructive learning leads to integrated skills and deep understanding

People learn by constructing ideas and skills through dialogue
 e.g. discussion, debate, collaboration, shared knowledge-building
 social constructive learning also leads to integrated skills and deep
understanding

People learn by participating in communities of practice
 e.g. apprenticeship, work-based learning, legitimate peripheral participation
 situated practice leads to the development of habits, values and identities
Three broad approaches cont.

All approaches emphasise:
 Learner activity
 Constructive alignment of activities with desired outcomes
 The importance of feedback
 Opportunities for consolidation (practice) and integration

They differ in:
 The role and importance of other people
 The authenticity of the activity
 The formality of activity structures and sequences
 The emphasis on retention/reproduction or reflection/internalisation
 The locus of control
Further resources




Terry Mayes and Sara de Freitas (2004) Review of e-learning
theories, frameworks and models
JISC Effective Practice in a Digital Age: pages 10-11
Theory into Practice database
http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html
Theories of Learning – short paper from Oxford Brookes
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/theories.html
2. What helps people learn more effectively?
Principles of effective pedagogic design
Principles of effective learning
design

People learn more effectively when:
 They are active
 They are motivated and engaged
 Their existing capabilities are brought into play
 They are appropriately challenged
 zone of proximal development
 scaffolding
 differentiation
 They have opportunities for dialogue (with tutors,
mentors or peers)
 They receive feedback (intrinsic or extrinsic)
 They have opportunities for consolidation and
integration
Outline of a learning activity
Identities: preferences, needs, motivations
Competences: skills, knowledge, abilities
Roles: approaches and modes of participating
learner(s)
specific interaction of learner(s) with other(s),
using specific tools and resources, oriented
towards specific outcomes
learning
environment
learning
activity
learning
outcome(s)
New knowledge, skills and abilities
Artefacts of the activity process
Feedback (intrinsic or extrinsic)
Tools, resources, artefacts
Affordances of the physical and
virtual environment for learning
other people
Other people involved and the specific
role they play in the interaction e.g.
support, mediate, challenge, guide
Further resources



Effective Practice in a Digital Age: pages 12-13
Beetham, H. & Sharpe R. (2007) Rethinking
Pedagogy in a Digital Age. Oxon:Routledge
John Biggs (2003) Aligning teaching for
constructive learning:
available from the HE Academy resources
database
Activity - 1
3. What works in practice?
Case study analysis
Think about the following:

Which learning theories are relevant?

Which pedagogic principles are being used?

Which activities help learners achieve which outcomes?

How do the e-learning tools and resources support
 specific activities/outcomes?
 specific learners’ needs?
Elements in learning design
Problems
Investigations
Learning Projects
Activity Tasks
Role plays
Tutorials, quizzes,
Simulations,
worksheets
individual
Learning
Resources
Teams, collaboration,
Tutorials, conferences,
Buddies, mentors
group
assessment
Books, papers,
Notes, web links, audio,
Video, home study kits,
Lectures, etc
Schedules,
instructions
Procedures,
announcements
Learning
Supports
Modified after
Oliver &
Herrington, 2001
Further resources


Littlejohn, A. & Pegler, C. (2007) Preparing for
blended e-learning. Oxon:Routledge.
Diana Laurillard (2003) Rethinking University
Teaching 2nd Edition: Routledge
4. What does the technology contribute?
Typology of technologies for learning.
A typology of technologies
for learning







Based on Laurillard (1993, 2nd Edition 2003)
Typology has been used to support design for learning
 e.g. Conole (2004); Littlejohn (2004); Warren and Mayer (2000)
Expresses how technologies are used for learning
Narrative = enabling representation of ideas
Communicative = enabling dialogue between learners and others
Interactive, Productive and Adaptive = enabling various forms of
interactivity between learner(s) and the learning system
Integrative (added category) = enabling integration of learning
across activities
The typology can be used
to…

Choose a technology type
 to support a specific learning activity or outcome

Choose specific technologies within a type
 to suit learners’ ICT capabilities and skills
 to offer learners’ choice and autonomy
 e.g. over mode of access, approach to learning,
medium used, adaptive technology…
 to support collaborative and peer learning (if
appropriate)
 that is available, affordable and effectively supported
Focus on technologies


Lecture Capture
Moodle tools for Peer Assessment
Further resources

Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2008) E-learning and
social networking handbook. Oxon:Routledge.
5. How can I approach the design of
technology enabled activities?
Design task with JISC effective practice
planner.
Tools for design


JISC Planner – detailed analysis of context
Oliver and Herrington LDS – description of a
learning design.
Activity 2 - Have a go ……
Use the scenario provided or your own course
to develop a technology enabled activity
design.
Where next….



Research and evaluation methods, including
ethical considerations: – 1/12/10.
Discuss your plans with your adviser
Drafts of design proposal: 12/12/10
Download