Global 9 – Final Exam Review – Turning points & revolutions • Neolithic Revolution – stopped being hunter/gatherers and began to stay in one spot, they grew crops and they domesticated animals -> led to villages, towns and cities -> led to the development of civilizations: cities, government, writing, religion, social classes (bureaucrats, warriors, priests, farmers) & art. What was required before a civilization could develop? Food surplus • The Fall of the Roman Empire – came about gradually due to the inability to protect the borders, corruption and the invasion of Germanic tribes. Western empire fell, but the Eastern empire continued as The Byzantine Empire for another 1000 years. • The Crusades – expeditions begun by Pope Urban II organized to rescue Jerusalem in the Holy Land from the Turks Impact: • Increased trade and travel • Broadened the use of money economy • Increased awareness of other cultures • Spread and intermixed learning, technology, ideas • Increased desire for silks, spices, perfumes • Led to rediscovery of classical Greek sciences and philosophy • Spread of Muslim medical practices • Spread knowledge of oriental technology (compass, windmills and water wheels, gunpowder, paper) • Commercial Revolution – Europe changed from feudal economy to new economy where goods were traded world wide. Impact: • Mercantilism: rulers increased their power by collecting gold through colonies and taxes • Colonies: Spain, Portugal, France, Holland and England developed overseas empires • Capitalism: entrepreneurs risked their capital (money) in pursuit of profit – concept of banking • Merchants developed new methods of financing, such as joint stock companies and borrowing • Creation of guilds ( apprentice, journeymen & masters • The Renaissance – the “rebirth” of interest in the world where Western Europe’s view of the world shifted from a religious one to a secular (worldly) view. The Renaissance began in Italy due to the wealth from trade gained by Venice, Florence and Milan. • Humanism – belief in the accomplishments of the individual Achievements: Literature: Dante – The Divine Comedy, Chaucer – The Canterbury Tales, Shakespeare – plays & poems, Cervantes – Don Quixote Art & Architecture: DaVinci – Mona Lisa & Last Supper, Michelangelo, David & Sistine Chapel Political Science: Machiavelli – The Prince & “the end justifies the means” • Protestant Reformation – Started by Martin Luther when he nailed his “95 Thesis” to the door of a church. He especially disliked the corruption of the church and the selling of indulgences -> led to the growth of protestant churches (Lutheran, Calvinist & Anabaptists), and a loss of power for the Catholic Church. Led to religious wars in Europe, persecution of religious groups, and colonization in the Americas. • The year 1492 – The Encounter – Led to the Columbian Exchange and Triangular Trade – caused the death of up to 90% of the native population of the Americas. • The Columbian Exchange led to an increased population in Europe due to a better food supply. • Triangular Trade – was trade between the Americas, Europe and Africa. Slavery was an important part of Triangular Trade.