Global 9 * Final Exam Review * Turning points & revolutions

Global 9 – Final Exam Review – Turning points & revolutions
• Neolithic Revolution – stopped being hunter/gatherers and began to
stay in one spot, they grew crops and they domesticated animals ->
led to villages, towns and cities -> led to the development of
civilizations: cities, government, writing, religion, social classes
(bureaucrats, warriors, priests, farmers) & art. What was required
before a civilization could develop? Food surplus
• The Fall of the Roman Empire – came about gradually due to the
inability to protect the borders, corruption and the invasion of
Germanic tribes. Western empire fell, but the Eastern empire
continued as The Byzantine Empire for another 1000 years.
• The Crusades – expeditions begun by Pope Urban II organized to
rescue Jerusalem in the Holy Land from the Turks
• Increased trade and travel
• Broadened the use of money economy
• Increased awareness of other cultures
• Spread and intermixed learning, technology, ideas
• Increased desire for silks, spices, perfumes
• Led to rediscovery of classical Greek sciences and philosophy
• Spread of Muslim medical practices
• Spread knowledge of oriental technology (compass, windmills and
water wheels, gunpowder, paper)
• Commercial Revolution – Europe changed from feudal economy to
new economy where goods were traded world wide.
• Mercantilism: rulers increased their power by collecting gold
through colonies and taxes
• Colonies: Spain, Portugal, France, Holland and England
developed overseas empires
• Capitalism: entrepreneurs risked their capital (money) in pursuit
of profit – concept of banking
• Merchants developed new methods of financing, such as joint
stock companies and borrowing
• Creation of guilds ( apprentice, journeymen & masters
• The Renaissance – the “rebirth” of interest in the world where
Western Europe’s view of the world shifted from a religious one
to a secular (worldly) view. The Renaissance began in Italy due
to the wealth from trade gained by Venice, Florence and Milan.
• Humanism – belief in the accomplishments of the individual
Literature: Dante – The Divine Comedy, Chaucer – The
Canterbury Tales, Shakespeare – plays & poems, Cervantes – Don
Art & Architecture: DaVinci – Mona Lisa & Last Supper,
Michelangelo, David & Sistine Chapel
Political Science: Machiavelli – The Prince & “the end justifies the
• Protestant Reformation – Started by Martin Luther when he nailed
his “95 Thesis” to the door of a church. He especially disliked the
corruption of the church and the selling of indulgences -> led to the
growth of protestant churches (Lutheran, Calvinist & Anabaptists),
and a loss of power for the Catholic Church. Led to religious wars in
Europe, persecution of religious groups, and colonization in the
• The year 1492 – The Encounter – Led to the Columbian Exchange
and Triangular Trade – caused the death of up to 90% of the native
population of the Americas.
• The Columbian Exchange led to an increased population in Europe
due to a better food supply.
• Triangular Trade – was trade between the Americas, Europe and
Africa. Slavery was an important part of Triangular Trade.