Emergency Preparedness - Health and Human Services

Module 1 Objectives
This week, we will cover the following
Concepts of Emergency Management
 Phases of Emergency Management
 Planning Processes
Emergency Preparedness
An emergency is:
an unplanned event that can cause death or
significant injuries to employees or the
 or that can disrupt a business or its
operation, cause physical or environmental
damage or threaten the organization's
financial standing or public image.
Emergency Preparedness
Identifying and analyzing the potential events
and their impact on the organization are first
two steps in planning to manage an
 Emergency management involves, planning
then organizing then leading and controlling.
Classes of Disasters
Disasters can strike an organization in many
different ways.
 Typically, disasters can be classified as:
Natural events
Technological events
Man-made events
Natural Events
Lightning storm
Extreme heat/cold
Flood/wind-driven water
Earthquake/land shift
Volcanic eruption
Dust/sand storm
Technological Events
Hazardous material
Transportation accident
Power/utility failure
Extreme air pollution
Radiological accident
 Dam/levee failure
 Fuel/resource shortage
 Strike
 Business interruption
 Financial collapse
 Communication
Human Events
 General strike
 Terrorism
 Sabotage
 Hostage situations
Civil unrest
Enemy attack
Mass hysteria
Special events
Phases of Emergency
The activities involved in emergency
management can be categorized as
Preparedness: Preparing to handle an emergency
Prevention: Means actions taken to avoid an
incident or to intervene to stop an incident
from occurring.
Response: Responding safely to an emergency
Recovery: Recovering from an emergency
Mitigation: Reducing the severity
Includes plans or preparations made to
save lives and to help response-and-rescue
Evacuation plans and stocking food and
water are both examples of preparedness.
Preparedness activities take BEFORE an
emergency occurs, such as identifying the
hazards and quantifying risks.
Includes any activities that prevent an
emergency, reduce the chance of an
emergency happening.
 Means actions taken to avoid an incident
or to intervene to stop an incident from
 Involves actions taken to protect lives
and property.
Includes actions taken to save lives and
prevent further property damage in a disaster
or emergency situation.
 Response is putting your preparedness plans
into action.
 Seeking shelter from a tornado or turning off
gas valves in an earthquake are both
response activities.
 Response activities take place DURING an
Includes actions taken to return to a
normal or even safer situation following
an emergency.
 Recovery includes getting financial
assistance to help pay for the repairs.
 Recovery activities take place AFTER an
Reduce or eliminate risks to persons or
property, or
 Lessen the actual or potential effects or
consequences of an incident
 Mitigation activities take place BEFORE,
DURING, and AFTER emergencies.
Emergency Management and
Emergency management is the process of
preparing for, mitigating, responding to and
recovering from an emergency.
 Emergency management is a dynamic
 Planning, though critical, is not the only
 Training, conducting drills, testing equipment
and coordinating activities with the community
are other important functions.
Steps in Emergency Planning
5 steps in emergency planning
Step 1: Establish a team
 Step 2: Analyze capabilities and hazards
 Step 3: Conduct vulnerability assessment
 Step 4: Develop the plan
 Step 5: Implement the plan
Step 1: Establish a Planning
The size of the planning team will depend on
the facility’s operations, requirements and
Using a Group Approach
Usually involving a group of people is best because:
It encourages participation and gets more people invested in
the process.
It increases the amount of time and energy participants are
able to give.
It enhances the visibility and stature of the planning process.
It provides for a broad perspective on the issues.
Demonstrate management’s commitment and promote an
atmosphere of cooperation by “authorizing” the planning
group to take the steps necessary to develop a plan.
The group should be led by the chief executive or the plant
Step 2: Analyze Capabilities and
This step entails gathering information about
current capabilities and about possible
hazards and emergencies, and then
conducting a vulnerability analysis to
determine the facility’s capabilities for handling
Analyze Capabilities and Hazards
Review Internal Plans and Policies Documents
to look for include:
• Evacuation plan
• Fire protection plan
• Safety and health program
• Environmental policies
• Security procedures
Meet with Outside Groups
Meet with government agencies, community
organizations and utilities.
 Ask about potential emergencies and about
plans and available resources for responding
to them.
Identify Codes and Regulations
Identify applicable Federal, State and
local regulations such as:
Occupational safety and health regulations
 Environmental regulations
 Fire codes
Identify Critical Products, Services
and Operations
Company products and services and the
facilities and equipment needed to produce
 Products and services provided by suppliers,
especially sole source vendors
 Lifeline services such as electrical power,
water, sewer, gas, telecommunications and
Identify Internal Resources and
Resources and capabilities that could be
needed in an emergency include:
Personnel — fire brigade, hazardous materials
response team, emergency medical services,
security, emergency management group,
evacuation team, public information officer
Equipment — fire protection and suppression
equipment, communications equipment, first aid
supplies, emergency supplies, warning systems,
emergency power equipment, decontamination
Step 3: Vulnerability
The next step is to assess the vulnerability of
the facility
 Vulnerability assessment is the process of
identifying and quantifying vulnerabilities in a
 Vulnerability is the probability and potential
impact of each emergency.
Conducting a Vulnerability
The system being studied could be a physical
facility like a nuclear power plant , a computer
system , or a larger system (for example the
communications infrastructure or water
infrastructure of a region).
 Vulnerability assessment has many things in
common with risk assessment .
Conducting a Vulnerability
Assessments are typically performed
according to the following steps:
Cataloging assets and capabilities (resources) in a
Assigning quantifiable value and importance to the
Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential threats to
each resource
Mitigating or eliminating the most serious
vulnerabilities for the most valuable resources
Vulnerability Assessment Tools
There are a variety of vulnerability assessment tools
available from various governmental agencies.
These tools are typically designed for a specific threat
such as chemical facilities, laboratories, transportation,
and businesses.
Vulnerability Assessment
There are many methodologies that can be used for
vulnerability assessment, including:
What-if / scenario analysis
HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Studies
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analyses)
Fault Tree Diagrams
Decision Tree Analysis
Capability Assessment Readiness (CAR) for state
and local governments
Some are quantitative, some diagrammatic,
some complex and some simple.
FEMA’s Impact Analysis
One technique, explained in FEMA's impactdriven model is known as Impact Analysis.
 The Federal Emergency Management Agency
emphasizes assessment of the impact in
addition to identification of the emergency
An Impact-Driven Model
The impact of an emergency on the
organization may include the following:
Health and safety of persons in the affected area
Health and safety of personnel responding to the incident
Continuity of operations
Property, facilities and infrastructure
Delivery of services
The environment
Economic and financial condition
Regulatory and contractual obligations
Reputation of the entity
Simplified Impact Analysis
One assessment technique simply constructs
tables in which numerical assessments (1
(low) to 5 (high)) of human impact, property
impact, business impact and probability are
added, and then ranked.
 The probability is the likelihood of each
emergency's occurrence.
Impact Categories
The human impact assesses the effect on employees,
visitors or the public.
The property impact measures the loss of or damage
to property (real and personal) -the cost to replace or
repair, and the cost of temporary replacement
The business impact considers the effect of business
interruption, disruption of critical supplies, loss of
market share, etc.
Events or emergency types with the highest total are
the ones that should be considered first, as they have
the biggest potential impact.
Resource Analysis
In addition to the assessment of the
probability of an emergency and the
impact on the organization, the
organization should consider factoring in
the available resources, which will give a
head-start on the mitigation program.
Examples of Emergency
Management Resources
Hazmat teams
Emergency wardens
External Resources
Community emergency responders
Evaluating Resources
Resources can be characterized as
strong (1) to weak (5), and added into
the Impact Analysis.
 Strong resources already in place have
the effect of lowering the total score of a
given event or emergency type,
reprioritizing the need for action.
STEP 4: Develop the Plan
When developing a the disaster plan, the
emergency management coordinator along
with the management team members must
assess and plan for basic elements necessary
for the implementation of the plan, protection
of life and property.
Emergency Management Plan
The basic elements addressed in the
emergency management plan address the
minimum activities necessary for successful
 This section of the plan briefly describes the
facility’s approach to the core elements of
emergency management
Emergency Management Plan
Direction and control
 Life safety
 Property protection
 Community outreach
 Recovery and
 Administration and
Identify Challenges and
Prioritize Activities
Write the Plan
Establish a Training
Coordinate with Outside
Review, Conduct
Training and Revise
Emergency Planning
Planning considerations can vary widely. The
primary goal is to ensure that all the important
activities are included in the emergency action
plan and outcomes anticipated.
Continuity Planning
Continuity planning are those activities
designed to allow an organization to recover
following a disaster.
 The activities restore interrupted services and
activities in as short of period as possible
following the disaster and as a result, minimize
losses following the disaster.
Training Planning
Companies, which have experienced major
disasters, report that training and testing are
the keys to a successful response.
 Training must be at all levels.
Public Response Planning
Issuing warnings is one of the most important
methods of averting the destructive
consequences of disasters.
 An effective warning process may depend on
the cooperative interactions of multiple
organizations: those who detect the disaster
threat, those who detect that a warning should
be issued, and those who convey the warning
to the public.
Public Response Planning
The public's response to warning is not a
simple stimulus response reaction.
 The source, context, and repetition of the
message can influence the warning's influence
on public behavior.
 In disasters, news reports generate worldwide
concern in those who think they may have
loved ones in the impact area.
Public Response Planning
The usual result is that organizations in the
disaster area are inundated with inquiries
about these persons.
 Convincing the public to evacuate areas
threatened by impending disaster is often
Crisis Planning
A crisis management plan integrates many of
the components of the emergency response
 A team must be appointed to make the
necessary decisions to resume operations
after the event.
 The plan should identify critical functions that
must be restored immediately and make
provisions for long term repair or replacement
of facilities and equipment.
Rescue Planning
The emergency response plan should identify
the potential types of specialized rescues that
may be assigned to the ERT.
 High elevations, excavations, confined spaces,
and many other situations should be
Rescue Planning Example
Emergency response teams with responsibility for
rescue of workers injured or trapped in confined
spaces must be properly trained and equipped in
accordance with OSHA standard 1910.146 PermitRequired Confined Spaces.
Rescuers must be provided with personal protective
equipment including respirators and body harnesses;
trained to perform the assigned rescue duties; etc.
Rescuers must be trained in first aid and CPR.
Practice drills must be conducted annually.
STEP 5: Implement the Plan
Implementation means acting on
recommendations made during the
vulnerability analysis, integrating the plan
into company operations, training
employees and evaluating the plan.
Continuous Improvement
Disaster planning should incorporate a continuous
improvement process to the implementation phase.
 An ongoing evaluation of the plan should be
conducted based upon evaluations, drills, and
assessments of the plan when used.
 Potential problems and shortcomings of the disaster
response can be identified and corrected.
 Changes in potential threats should be evaluated on
an on-going basis and changes to the disaster
response plan made as deemed appropriate.