32 Laws 10/24 If you controlled a country and only had 3 laws, what 3 laws must your country have? Challenges Facing the Early Roman Republic Challenges within Rome The Struggle of the Orders. The Society was divided into 2 groups. Plebeians = Commoners Patricians = Nobles/ Rich The Plebeians wanted a change in the government. They wanted more say. The Patricians held all the power in the Republic and were the only ones allowed to hold office. Struggle of the Orders In 494 B.C. the Plebeians revolt and form their own council & elected officials. This frightened many of the Patricians because they thought Rome would fall apart if the 2 groups couldn’t work together. Patricians knew if people stayed unhappy, they might rise up and overthrow the whole government. Changes in the Government To calm the angry Plebeians, the Patricians made some changes in the government. The law of debt had been revoked and anyone imprisoned was released. Most important effect was the creation of a new office, tribunes. Tribunes = Protect Plebeians rights. Only could be held by a Plebeian. Had the power to veto. Twelve Tables Before the 12 tables the laws were not written down, laws were interpreted by the Patricians. How would this have been a disadvantage for Plebeians? 450 B.C. ten officials began writing down Rome’s laws. Became a basis for Roman law. Developed the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law. How could the 12 tables benefit the Plebeians? 494 BCE: traditional date of the First Secession of the Plebs, during which they established their own assembly and elected their own magistrates and the Tribunes 450 BCE: traditional date of the Law of the Twelve Tables, the first codification of Roman law 445 BCE: patricians and plebeians were permitted to intermarry 367 BCE: plebeians became eligible for the consulship 342 BCE: law passed making it mandatory that one of the two Consuls must be a plebeian ****Over time the distinction between Pleb & Pat disappeared but it took a very long time. **** Challenges Outside of Rome Shortly after Rome becomes a Republic, war breaks out. Over 200 years of fighting. In 387 the Gauls attack Rome and takes over the city. Romans pay them a huge amount of money to leave. After this other neighbors try the same thing. Rome won most of the wars but it took a toll on the Romans. Many places were destroyed and many people died. DID NOT USE IN NOTES As the republic grew so did trade. To pay for goods the Romans made coins out of copper, silver, and other metals. Roman coins began to appear throughout the Mediterranean. Roman coins displayed various images and words Some coins honored victories Some reflected what was going on in Rome When times were bad you could see it from the coin The coin had less precious metal & weighed less than in good times. A Dictator is Chosen. During difficult wars, the Romans chose a dictator to replace the 2 consuls. A dictator is a ruler with absolute power. The dictator lead the city, but could only be in power for 6 months. Why do you think during tough wars did Rome have a dictator? Cincinnatus Cincinnatus was one of early Rome’s most famous dictator. Cincinnatus was originally a farmer, but was asked to defend the city against a powerful enemy. Once he won the war, he immediately resigned as dictator and returned to his farm. Even before his 6 month term ended. Fighting did not end with Cincinnatus. Rome continued to fight with their neighbors for many years. What are some reasons that Cincinnatus would be honored so highly in Rome? Cincinnatus 519 B.C. - ? Cincinnatus is the most famous dictator from the early Roman Republic. Because he wasn’t eager to hold on to his power, the Romans considered Cincinnatus an ideal leader. They admired his abilities and his loyalty to the republic. The early citizens of the United States admired the same qualities in their leaders. In fact, some people called George Washington the “American Cincinnatus” when he refused to run for a third term as president. The people of the state of Ohio also honored Cincinnatus by naming one of their major cities, Cincinnati, after him.