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ECE 476 Power System Analysis Lecture 20: Symmetrical Components, Unsymmetrical Faults Prof. Tom Overbye Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [email protected] Announcements • Read Chapters 8 and 9 • HW 9 quiz today • Second exam is Thursday Nov. 12 during class. Closed book, closed notes, one new note sheet, first exam note sheet, and calculators allowed – – Exam covers through end of today's lecture Room 1013 ECEB. • Abbott Power Plant tour is Tuesday Nov. 10 during class (we’ll be meeting at Abbott on the north side, NW corner of Oak and Armory) • Design project is due on Nov 19; details on website 1 Symmetric Components • The key idea of symmetrical component analysis is to decompose the system into three sequence networks. The networks are then coupled only at the point of the unbalance (i.e., the fault) • The three sequence networks are known as the – – – positive sequence (this is the one we’ve been using) negative sequence zero sequence • Presented in paper by Charles .L Fortescue in 1918 (judged as most important power paper of 20th century) Heydt, G. T.; Venkata, S. S.; Balijepalli, N. (October 24, 2000). "High Impact Papers in Power Engineering, 1900-1999" Proceedings 2000 North American Power Symposium, vol. 1, October 2000. North American Power Symposium (NAPS). Waterloo, Ontario. 2 Positive Sequence Sets • The positive sequence sets have three phase currents/voltages with equal magnitude, with phase b lagging phase a by 120°, and phase c lagging phase b by 120°. • We’ve been studying positive sequence sets Positive sequence sets have zero neutral current 3 Negative Sequence Sets • The negative sequence sets have three phase currents/voltages with equal magnitude, with phase b leading phase a by 120°, and phase c leading phase b by 120°. • Negative sequence sets are similar to positive sequence, except the phase order is reversed Negative sequence sets have zero neutral current 4 Zero Sequence Sets • Zero sequence sets have three values with equal magnitude and angle. • Zero sequence sets have neutral current 5 Sequence Set Representation • Any arbitrary set of three phasors, say Ia, Ib, Ic can be represented as a sum of the three sequence sets I a I a0 I a I a I b I b0 I b I b I c I c0 I c I c where I a0 , I b0 , I c0 is the zero sequence set I a , I b , I c is the positive sequence set I a , I b , I c is the negative sequence set 6 Conversion from Sequence to Phase Only three of the sequence values are unique, I0a , I a , I a ; the others are determined as follows: 1120 0 2 3 1 3 I0a I0b I0c (since by definition they are all equal) I b 2 I a I c I a I b I a I c 2 I a 1 1 1 1 Ia 1 I I0 1 I + 2 I 1 2 b a a a 2 1 I c 1 0 1 Ia Ia 2 I a 7 Conversion Sequence to Phase Define the symmetrical components transformation matrix 1 1 1 2 A 1 1 2 0 0 Ia I Ia Then I I b A I a A I A I s I c I a I 8 Conversion Phase to Sequence By taking the inverse we can convert from the phase values to the sequence values I s A 1I 1 1 1 1 1 2 with A 1 3 1 2 Sequence sets can be used with voltages as well as with currents 9 Symmetrical Component Example 1 I a 100 Let I I b 10 Then I c 10 1 100 1 1 1 1 2 I s A I 1 10 100 3 1 2 10 0 100 0 If I 10 Is 0 10 100 10 Symmetrical Component Example 2 Va 0 Let V Vb Vc Then 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 Vs A V 1 3 1 2 6.12 11 Symmetrical Component Example 3 I 0 100 Let I s I 10 I Then 1 100 1 1 2 I AI s 1 10 1 2 12 Use of Symmetrical Components • Consider the following wye-connected load: I n I a Ib I c Vag I a Z y I n Z n Vag ( ZY Z n ) I a Z n I b Z n I c Vbg Z n I a ( ZY Z n ) I b Z n I c Vcg Z n I a Z n I b ( ZY Z n ) I c Vag Z y Zn Vbg Z n V Z n cg Zn Z y Zn Zn Ia Z n Ib Z y Z n I c Zn 13 Use of Symmetrical Components Vag Z y Zn Zn Z y Zn Vbg Z n V Z Zn n cg V Z I V A Vs A Vs Z A I s Z y 3Z n 1 A ZA 0 0 Ia Z n Ib Z y Z n I c I A Is Zn Vs A 1 Z A I s 0 Zy 0 0 0 Z y 14 Networks are Now Decoupled V 0 Z y 3Z n 0 0 Zy V 0 0 V Systems are decoupled V 0 ( Z y 3Z n ) I 0 V Zy I 0 I 0 0 I Z y I V Zy I 15 Sequence diagrams for generators • Key point: generators only produce positive sequence voltages; therefore only the positive sequence has a voltage source During a fault Z+ Z Xd”. The zero sequence impedance is usually substantially smaller. The value of Zn depends on whether the generator is grounded 16 Sequence diagrams for Transformers • The positive and negative sequence diagrams for transformers are similar to those for transmission lines. • The zero sequence network depends upon both how the transformer is grounded and its type of connection. The easiest to understand is a double grounded wye-wye 17 Transformer Sequence Diagrams 18 Unbalanced Fault Analysis • The first step in the analysis of unbalanced faults is to assemble the three sequence networks. For example, for the earlier single generator, single motor example let’s develop the sequence networks 19 Sequence Diagrams for Example Positive Sequence Network Negative Sequence Network 20 Sequence Diagrams for Example Zero Sequence Network 21 Create Thevenin Equivalents • To do further analysis we first need to calculate the thevenin equivalents as seen from the fault location. In this example the fault is at the terminal of the right machine so the thevenin equivalents are: Zth j 0.2 in parallel with j0.455 Zth j 0.21 in parallel with j0.475 22 Single Line-to-Ground (SLG) Faults • Unbalanced faults unbalance the network, but only at the fault location. This causes a coupling of the sequence networks. How the sequence networks are coupled depends upon the fault type. We’ll derive these relationships for several common faults. • With a SLG fault only one phase has non-zero fault current -- we’ll assume it is phase A. 23 SLG Faults, cont’d I af f Ib f I c ? 0 0 Then since I 0f 1 ? 1 1 1 1 f 2 0 I f 1 0 I f I f I f I a 3 3 2 1 0 I f 24 SLG Faults, cont’d Vaf Vaf f Vb f Vc Z f I af 0 V 1 f 1 1 2 1 V f 1 2 V f This means Vaf V f0 V f V f The only way these two constraints can be satisified is by coupling the sequence networks in series 25 SLG Faults, cont’d With the sequence networks in series we can solve for the fault currents (assume Zf=0) I f 1.050 j1.964 I f I 0f j (0.1389 0.1456 0.25 3Z f ) I A I s I af j 5.8 (of course, Ibf I cf 0) 26