Chapter 2 Ethics and Methods © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved. Anthropological Approach Holistic perspective Cultural relativity Cross-cultural comparisons Terms for Chapter 2 Ethnocentric Adaptation Ethnography Ethnology Emic – insiders view Etic – outsiders view © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved. Ethics and Anthropology American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics Informed consent Collaborative relationships Inclusion of host country colleagues in planning, funding requests, and dissemination of results “Giving something back” Western Science Methods Analysis Inductive Deductive Scientific Method Data Hypothesis Theory/Law Publish Methods Empirical observations Objective Subjective Methods in Cultural Anthropology Two brief categories of investigation Ethnographic Comparative Each one has two parts Present Recent past Ethnographic Methods Fieldwork Deals with the present time Primary method of collecting data Three main methods for fieldwork Participant Observation Interview Media Ethnohistory Deals with people in recent past Get data from the textual sources Comparative Methods Cross-cultural comparisons Controlled Historical Comparisons Cultural Anthropology and Sociology Share interest in social relations, organization, and behavior Sociology traditionally focused on large, industrialized Western nations Anthropology traditionally focused on small, nonliterate populations Ethnography: Anthropology’s Distinctive Strategy Firsthand, personal study of local cultural settings Extended period of time in a given society or community Ethnographic Techniques Observation and participant observation Ethnographic Techniques Conversation, interviewing, and interview schedules Ethnographic Techniques The genealogical method Key cultural consultants (key informants) Life histories Ethnographic Techniques Local beliefs and perceptions versus those of the ethnographer Emic (native-oriented) approach Etic (science-oriented) approach Types of Ethnography Problem-oriented Ethnography Most ethnographers investigate a specific problem Collection of data on range of variables Longitudinal Research Team Research Survey Research Becoming more popular Impersonal Limitations Race Gender Culture Shock What is culture shock? How could anthropologists get it?