Propagation To increase the number of plants, reproducing plants Sexual Propagation Propagation with seed Asexual Propagation Propagation without seed Fast way to get many plants Easy to do Economical Some plants do not reproduce true to parents. Some plants are difficult to propagate from seeds. Direct Sow - Seeds are sown directly in container in which they are grown Indirect Sow – Seeds are sown in one container and transplanted to another after their true leaves appear. Monocot – Produce one seed leaf. Example: Corn Dicot – Produce two seed leaves. Example: Bean Mature Seed – Stage where a seed can be removed from the plant without hurting its germination. Viable Seed – Seeds that are live and will germinate. Seed Coat – Outside covering of the seed which protects the embryonic plant. Cotyledon – The first leaves to appear on a plant; seed leaves Embryo – The new plant that is developed as a result of fertilization (the seed). Endosperm – Food storage tissue which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination. Epicotyl – The stem located above the cotyledons of a seedling. Hypocotyl – The stem tissue located between the seedling root and the cotyledons. Radicle – The primary seedling root. (turns into the primary root) Scarification – Scratching, chipping, or nicking of the seed coat of certain seeds to promote germination. Stratification – Exposing seeds to cool temperatures, 35-50F, for a period of time to break dormancy. Planting seeds When the young plant breaks the soil surface. Germination Rate - % of seeds that germinate EX: 75 out of 100 = 75% Plant 500 seeds, 350 germinate, what is the germination rate? Answer: 350/500 = 70% If you have a 75% germination rate and plant 240 seeds how many will germinate? Answer: 240/x = 75% so 240 * .75 = 180 You have 679 seeds germinate with a germination rate of 85% how many seeds did you plant? Answer: x * .85 = 679 so 679/.85 = 798.82 = 799 The Order of seed germination Seedlings – Young plants which have germinated for several days. Seed Leaves – 1st set of leaves to appear, usually rounded or oval. True Leaves – 2nd set of leaves to appear, usually look like plant’s adult leaves. Transplant when the first true leaves appear. Harden off – Reduction of water, humidity, and temperature to prepare for transplanting.