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Cost Price (C.P.): Cost price is the price at which article is purchased. Loss or gain is reckoned on the cost price. Selling Price (S.P.): Selling price is the price at which article is sold. Profit = S.P – C.P Loss = C.P – S.P Commission : Commission is the incentive given by the parent or manufacturing company to the retailer based on the basis of sales of product. Margin: Normally, used in % terms only. This is the profit as a percentage of SP Marked Price: This is the price of the product as displayed on the label. Discount: This is the reduction given on a the marked price before selling it to a customer. Mark Up: This is the increment on the cost price before being sold to a customer. 1. 2. 3. 4. Profit percentage = (Profit/CP)*100 = ((SP/CP)-1)*100 Loss percentage = (Loss/CP)*100 = (1-(SP/CP))*100 S.P = ((100 + profit percentage)/100)* C.P S.P = ((100 - loss percentage)/100)* C.P 5. 6. 7. 8. If marked price be M.P and discount percentage be d, then S.P. = M.P *(100-d)/100 M.P. – Discount = S.P S.P – Profit = C.P If 2 items are sold, each at Rs X, one at a gain of P % and other at a loss of P%, then the overall loss percentage = (P²/100)% Type 1# If A sells to B at a profit of x%; B sells to C at a profit of y% and C pays Rs P for it. Find the cost of A. Example: A sells a cycle to B at a profit of 10%; B sells to C at a profit of 20% and C pays Rs 264 for it. What did A pay for it? Type 2# If the cost of A articles is equal to the selling price of B articles, find the profit percentage. Example: The C.P of 10 articles is equal to S.P of 9 articles. Find the profit percentage. Type 3# The cost price of two articles is same. If one is sold at a x% profit and the other at a loss of X%, find the profit or loss percentage. Example: Amit buys 2 cows for Rs 200 each. He sells one at a profit 10% and other at a loss of 10%. Find his profit or loss percentage. Type 4# Find the single percent discount equal to 2 successive discounts of x% and y% What single rate of discount is equal to 2 successive discounts of 10% and 15%?? Type 5# If 2 items are sold, each at Rs X, one at a gain of P % and other at a loss of P%, then the overall loss percentage: Example: Amit sells 2 cows for Rs 200 each. On one he gets a profit of 10%, while losing 10% on the other. What is his overall profit or loss percentage?? Type 6# If x% discount on an article is given on cash payment, find the percentage that should be marked above the cost price so as to make a profit of y% Example: A dealer allows a discount of 7% for cash payment. How much percentage above the cost price should he mark up his goods to make a profit of 10%. Type 7# If a dealer sells goods at cost price but uses a false weight for the kg weight, find his gain percentage. Example: A dishonest dealer professes to sell his goods at cost price, but he uses a weight of 960 g for 1 kg. Find his profit percentage.