Learning vocabulary – general advice Using a dictionary What do you need to learn? To sum up... many words you don't need at all other words that you simply need to understand when you read or hear them words that you need to be able to use yourself What does knowing a new word mean? You also need to know: a. what words it is usually associated with b. whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics c. how it is pronounced Try to learn new words NOT in isolation: a. adjectives with nouns: royal family, rich vocabulary b. verbs with the structure and nouns: to express an opinion, to add to our knowledge of the subject c. nouns in phrases: in contact with, shades of opinion d. words with their prepositions: at a high level, thanks to your help e. irregular verbs, uncountable nouns f. special pronunciation problems Can you learn just by reading or listening to English? Give each of the items on the list below a mark from 0 to 4 describing how important this way of learning vocabulary could be for you personally: newspapers, TV (cable, subtitled), cinema, magazines, video/DVD, radio, academic or professional literature, fiction, simplified readers, music, talking to native speakers What should you do when you come across new words? - - don‘t look up every new word or expression look up something that is really important for understanding the text Learning vocabulary – aids to learning 1. learning words together that are somehow associated in meaning 2. pictures and diagrams 3. word trees 4. word forks 5. matrices Words with associated meanings purr whiskers scratch tail tomcat Pictures and diagrams Pictures and diagrams Word trees Word forks Matrices (esp. for collocations) The names of English language words The names of English language words Word relating to nouns: countable uncountable subject object The names of English language words Words relating to verbs: irregular regular intransitive transitive The names of English language words Words relating to the construction of words: prefix suffix opposite or antonym synonym The names of English language words Words relating to pronunciation: syllable stress onomatopoeia The names of English language words Words and their associations: register slang colloquial pejorative collocations Using your dictionary ...more than just meaning: - synonyms and differences (mislay, lose) - antonyms (friend – enemy, foe) - collocations (auburn – hair) - pronunciation - word stress Using your dictionary - word-class (abbreviations: n, adj...) and more specific details (C, U, tr, intr...) - more than one meaning!