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West Coast Publishing
Sept-Oct 2014 Public Forum Sports Subsidies and Communities
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West Coast Publishing
Public Forum Sept-Oct 2014
Sports Subsidies & Communities
Edited and Researched by Jim Hanson
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Resolved: On balance, public subsidies for
professional athletic organizations in the
United States benefit their local
communities.
PUBLIC FORUM SEPT-OCT 2014
SPORTS SUBSIDIES & COMMUNITIES
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Table of Contents
Resolved: On balance, public subsidies for professional athletic organizations in the United States
benefit their local communities. ............................................................................................................... 2
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Topic Overview ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Definitions ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Public ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
Subsidies ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Professional Athletic Organizations .................................................................................................... 11
United States....................................................................................................................................... 12
Benefit ................................................................................................................................................. 13
Local Communities .............................................................................................................................. 14
Pro Evidence ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Pro Sports helps Economy .................................................................................................................. 16
Pro Sports helps Economy .................................................................................................................. 17
Pro Sports helps Jobs .......................................................................................................................... 18
Pro Sports subsidies do not undermine other public services ........................................................... 19
Pro Sports Community Philanthropy .................................................................................................. 20
Pro Sports support Community Based Sports for Youth..................................................................... 21
Pro Sports supports LGBTQ rights....................................................................................................... 22
Pro Sports promotes green energy ..................................................................................................... 23
Green Energy is critical ....................................................................................................................... 24
Pro Sports not sexually violent ........................................................................................................... 25
Pro Sports not violent ......................................................................................................................... 26
Pro Sports entertains people .............................................................................................................. 27
Pro Sports revitalizes communities..................................................................................................... 28
Pro Sports improves quality of life...................................................................................................... 29
Pro Sports subsidies consistent with civic democracy ........................................................................ 30
Con Evidence ............................................................................................................................................... 31
Pro Sports Subsidies cost cities millions ............................................................................................. 32
Pro Sports Subsidies don’t help the economy .................................................................................... 33
Pro Sports Subsidies don’t help the economy .................................................................................... 34
Pro Sports economic benefits should be questioned ......................................................................... 35
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Pro Sports leads to job losses ............................................................................................................. 36
Pro Sports increases wealth disparity ................................................................................................. 37
Wealth Disparity Inequality is bad ...................................................................................................... 38
Pro Sports violence and sexual violence ............................................................................................. 39
Pro Sports violence and sexual violence ............................................................................................. 40
Sexual Violence is a major impact....................................................................................................... 41
Pro Sports are Violent ......................................................................................................................... 42
Pro Sports are homophobic ................................................................................................................ 43
Pro Sports Sexist ................................................................................................................................. 44
Pro Sports promotes drug abuse ........................................................................................................ 45
Drug Abuse is Harmful ........................................................................................................................ 46
Public Subsidies for Pro Support Undemocratic ................................................................................. 47
Democracy is Good ............................................................................................................................. 48
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Topic Overview
This month’s public forum file will prepare you to debate the current resolution;
Resolved: On balance, public subsidies for professional athletic organizations in the United
States benefit their local communities. This file contains a set of definitions you can use to
determine what the pro side of the resolution must defend. This file provides you with the
evidence you need for both the pro and con side of the resolution. In addition, this file contains
a topic overview as well as a strategic discussion of the various argument interactions you may
see when debating the topic.
Topic Background
Sports are a highly prized form of physical activity and entertainment in American
society. People pay large amounts of money to watch professional sports. They do this by
paying for tickets to games, fees for watching special professional sports games on their
televisions, and even by purchasing bigger and higher resolution televisions. Politicians
understand this and the symbolic value of sports teams for their cities and states. As a result,
subsidies in the form of tax breaks, capital investment money, regulatory flexibility, and other
government support have become common.
The problem is that these subsidies are controversial. It is one thing to be supportive of
professional sports teams as a fan and quite another to be supportive of public money going to
those sports teams. As Robert Baade and Victor Matheson, from Department of Economics at
Lake Forest College and College of Holy Cross noted in 2011:
In the United States and Canada alone, by 2012, 125 of the 140 teams in the five largest
professional sports leagues, the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball
(MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), Major League Soccer (MLS), and National
Hockey League (NHL), will play in stadiums constructed or significantly refurbished since
1990. This new construction has come at a significant cost, the majority of which has
been borne by taxpayers. Construction costs alone for major league professional sports
facilities have totaled in excess of $30 billion in nominal terms over the past two
decades with over half of the cost being paid by the public. (Financing Professional
Sports Facilities,
http://college.holycross.edu/RePEc/spe/MathesonBaade_FinancingSports.pdf)
People, even sports fans, are upset with these subsidies on a number of counts. Others
continue to support the subsidies. That is the source for the debates in which you will engage.
Pro Arguments
On the Pro side of the resolution, there a number of arguments that advocates of pro
sports subsidies make. First, they argue that professional sports subsidies improve the
economy. While this is a great deal of evidence showing that this claim is false, you can still
argue that sports teams are key parts of the economy, they do lead to hiring of workers, and
they do indicate rebuilding of city neighborhoods—often that are in blighted, terrible condition.
A stronger argument is that sports are a key part of people’s lives and that invigorating
sports increases the quality of life, communities, and entertains and engages people. People
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feel civic pride and connection with their sports teams. That feeling should not be
underestimated as it is a key part of people’s happiness and even economists agree that this
sports satisfaction can be valued highly economically.
Further, sports teams are engaged in community philanthropy. An interesting argument
is that sports teams are promoting green energy and thus are a very visible symbol encouraging
more efficient and alternative use of energy. Sports teams work with charities and in efforts to
help young people to engage in community projects and to playing sports.
Con Arguments
On the Con side of the resolution, detractors of subsidies make a number of arguments.
First, they point out that the economic benefits have not stood up in economic studies. As
Dennis Coates and Brad Humphries noted:
The evidence reveals a great deal of consistency among economists doing research in
this area. That evidence is that sports subsidies cannot be justified on the grounds of
local economic development, income growth or job creation, those arguments most
frequently used by subsidy advocates. (Dennis Coates, Department of Economics,
University of Maryland and Brad Humphries, Department of Economics, University of
Alberta, 2008, Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Subsidies for Sports Franchises,
Stadiums, and Mega-Events?
http://news.heartland.org/sites/default/files/coateshumphreys_litreview.pdf)
Indeed, the argument goes that in some cases, the subsidies for sports have produced negative
economic effects because of money leaving the community to players and coaches who do not
live in the area, low wage jobs that are created, wealth transfer to rich owners and highly paid
players, and short term booms when construction occurs that do not last.
Further, the con side can argue that sports produce a variety of negative consequences
for communities. Sports have been linked, at times tenuously, at other times with stronger
evidence to sexual violence, violence in general, homophobia, and drug abuse. You can argue
that subsidies to an activity such as this should not be made.
Strategy Consideration: Weighing
In the end, the pro will be able to show benefits to subsidies and the con will be able to
show harms to the subsidies. Who will win? How will you win? Two key factors will be most
important. First, do your best to cast doubt on the benefits/harms noted by your opponents. If
you can provide an argument that undermines the other side’s argument on the
benefits/harms, it will allow your judge to view that argument as less determining of who
should win the debate. Second, and most important, you will need to show your harm/benefit
is more important than your opponents’. Explain why your argument effects more of the
_local_ community, how it effects the local community more intensely, how it is more
important, salient, and relevant to the resolution. Compare and contrast so that your judge is
clear that your arguments are the most important. You won’t be able to show there are no
arguments for your opponents—unless they do a really poor job—but you will be able to show
your arguments matter more. And that’s key to winning on this resolution.
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Definitions
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Public
Public means for most people; paid for by government
Merriam Webster http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/public
: of, relating to, or affecting all or most of the people of a country, state, etc.
: of, relating to, paid for by, or working for a government
: supported by money from the government and from private contributors rather than by commercials
Public means for the people as a whole
Google Definitions
adjective
adjective: public
1. of or concerning the people as a whole.
"public concern"
synonyms: popular, general, common, communal, collective, shared, joint, universal, widespread
"by public demand"
•open to or shared by all the people of an area or country.
"a public library"
synonyms: open (to the public), communal, accessible to all, available, free, unrestricted, community
"public places"
antonyms: restricted
Public means provided by the government
Google Definitions
adjective
adjective: public
•of or provided by the government rather than an independent, commercial company.
"public spending"
synonyms: state, national, federal, government; More
constitutional, civic, civil, official, social, municipal, community, communal, local;
nationalized
"public affairs"
antonyms: private
Public means well known, publicized
Google Definitions
adjective
adjective: public
of or involved in the affairs of the community, especially in government.
"his public career was destroyed by tenacious reporters"
synonyms: prominent, well known, important, leading, eminent, distinguished, notable, noteworthy,
noted, celebrated, household, famous, famed, influential, major-league
"a public figure"
antonyms: obscure, unknown
•known to many people; famous.
"a public figure"
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Public means done openly, transparently
Google Definitions
adjective
adjective: public
2.
done, perceived, or existing in open view.
"he wanted a public apology in the Wall Street Journal"
synonyms: known, published, publicized, in circulation, exposed, overt, plain, obvious
"the news became public"
antonyms: unknown, secret
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Subsidies
Subsidies are cash payments or tax reductions for public interests
Investopedia, www.investopedia.com/terms/s/subsidy.asp
Definition of 'Subsidy' A benefit given by the government to groups or individuals usually in the form of
a cash payment or tax reduction. The subsidy is usually given to remove some type of burden and is
often considered to be in the interest of the public.
Subsidy is financial or in kind support to an institution, business, or individual
Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidy
A subsidy is a form of financial or in kind support extended to an economic sector (or institution,
business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.[1] Although
commonly extended from Government, the term subsidy can relate to any type of support - for example
from NGOs or implicit subsidies. Subsidies come in various forms including: direct (cash grants, interestfree loans) and indirect (tax breaks, insurance, low-interest loans, depreciation write-offs, rent
rebates).[2][3]
Furthermore, they can be broad or narrow, legal or illegal, ethical or unethical. The most common forms
of subsidies are those to the producer or the consumer. Producer/Production subsidies ensure
producers are better off by either supplying market price support, direct support, or payments to factors
of production.[1][1] Consumer/Consumption subsidies commonly reduce the price of goods and services
to the consumer. For example, in the US at one time it was cheaper to buy gasoline than bottled
water.[4]
Whether subsidies are positive or negative is typically a normative judgment. As a form of economic
intervention, subsidies are inherently contrary to the market's demands. Thus, they are commonly used
by governments to promote general welfare (such as housing, tuition, and sustenance). However, they
can also be used as tools of political and corporate cronyism.
Subsidies include those for stadiums
Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidy
The National Football League's (NFL) profits have topped records at $11 billion, the highest of all sports.
Attention is beginning to look at the NFL's tax-exemption status[27] and all the stadiums built through
tax-free borrowing by the cities, resulting from subsidies out of the pockets of every American
taxpayer.[28]
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Professional Athletic Organizations
Professional Sports Organizations participate in competitive games with professional
athletes
Legal Information Institute, http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/28/3701
(1) the term “amateur sports organization” means—
(A) a person or governmental entity that sponsors, organizes, schedules, or conducts a competitive
game in which one or more amateur athletes participate, or
(B) a league or association of persons or governmental entities described in subparagraph (A),
(2) the term “governmental entity” means a State, a political subdivision of a State, or an entity or
organization, including an entity or organization described in section 4(5) of the Indian Gaming
Regulatory Act (25 U.S.C. 2703 (5)), that has governmental authority within the territorial boundaries of
the United States, including on lands described in section 4(4) of such Act (25 U.S.C. 2703 (4)),
(3) the term “professional sports organization” means—
(A) a person or governmental entity that sponsors, organizes, schedules, or conducts a competitive
game in which one or more professional athletes participate, or
(B) a league or association of persons or governmental entities described in subparagraph (A),
Professional Sports Organizations participate in competitive games for economic gain
Nevada Administrative Code, http://leg.state.nv.us/nac/NAC-640B.html
NAC 640B.020 Interpretation of certain statutory terms. (NRS 640B.015, 640B.021, 640B.260) As
used in NRS 640B.015 and 640B.021:
1. “Amateur athletic organization” means an entity that regulates or sponsors athletic activities by
persons who have never accepted money, or who accept money under restrictions specified by a
regulatory body, for participating in such athletic activities.
2. “Intercollegiate athletic association” means an entity that regulates or sponsors athletic activities
between colleges or universities.
3. “Interscholastic athletic association” means an entity that regulates or sponsors athletic activities
between high schools.
4. “Professional athletic organization” means an entity that regulates or sponsors athletic activities
by persons who participate in such athletic activities for economic gain.
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United States
The United States is the United States of America
Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/united%20states?s=t
a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48 conterminous states, the District of Columbia,
and Alaska in North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. Conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi.
(7,827,982 sq. km); with Alaska and Hawaii, 3,615,122 sq. mi. (9,363,166 sq. km).
Capital: Washington, D.C. Abbreviation: U.S., US.
The United States is the 50 states and D.C.
Planet News and Views
http://www.planetnewsandviews.com/index.php/en/component/planetnews/?view=article&articleid=3
31
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (US), America, or simply
the States, is a federal republic consisting of 50 states and a federal district. The 48 contiguous states
and the federal district of Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico.
The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago
in the mid-Pacific. The country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific
and the Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) in total and with around 316 million
people, the United States is the fourth-largest country by total area and third largest by population. It is
one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale
immigration from many countries. The geography and climate of the United States is also extremely
diverse, and it is home to a wide variety of wildlife Pro
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Benefit
Benefit means advantage or profit
Google Definition
noun
noun: benefit; plural noun: benefits
1.
an advantage or profit gained from something.
"tenants bought their houses with the benefit of a discount"
synonyms: good, sake, welfare, well-being, advantage, comfort, ease, convenience; More
help, aid, assistance, service;
profit
"for the benefit of others"
•advantage, reward, merit, boon, blessing, virtue;
bonus;
value;
informalperk;
formalperquisite
"the benefits of working for a large firm"
antonyms: detriment, drawback, disadvantage
Benefit means payment or gift
Google Definition
2.
a payment or gift made by an employer, the state, or an insurance company.
"welfare benefits"
synonyms: social security, welfare, assistance, employment insurance, unemployment, food stamps;
More
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Local Communities
A local community share an environment
Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_community
A local community is a group of interacting people sharing an environment. In human communities,
intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present
and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness.
A local community is individuals interacting in their immediate surroundings
Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/local-community.html
A group of individuals that interact within their immediate surroundings. A typical local community
consists of business operators, public agency staff and residents, and their interactions can include the
sharing of resources, information and assistance, as well as the establishment of commercial
relationships between local businesses and consumers.
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Pro Evidence
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Pro Sports helps Economy
Sports pack an economic wallop
Gwen Burrow, Editor July 9, 2013, EMSI, http://www.economicmodeling.com/2013/07/09/notjust-a-game-the-impact-of-sports-on-u-s-economy/
What would happen if, tomorrow, the sports industry keeled over and snuffed it? Just how much does
the world of balls, pucks, and punches actually add to the country’s economy?
More than some might think, it turns out. The sports industry as a whole brings roughly $14.3 billion in
earnings a year — and that’s not even counting the Niagara of indirect economic activity generated by
Super Bowl Sunday (well-known for being the second foodiest day in the country, behind Thanksgiving).
The industry also contributes 456,000 jobs with an average salary of $39,000 per job.
The sports sector, in other words, packs a wallop.
Boston and Foxborough Examples: Sports spurs growth
Amanda Maher, Initiative for a Competitive Inner City, August 23rd, 2011, An Economic
Development Case for Building Sports Stadiums
http://www.icic.org/connection/blog-entry/blog-an-economic-development-case-for-building-sportsstadiumsor-not
In a Forbes article last week, Adrian Melville explains that “Sports is Helping to Spur Growth in Boston.”
During the 163 Boston sports home games last year (Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins) fans injected $300
million in to the local economy. (For the sake of full disclosure—I’m a die-hard New England sports fan,
and often contribute to this spending.) It’s hard to miss the craze that happens each time the hometown
team plays.
But Boston’s stadiums aren’t new – so let’s take a look at Foxborough, MA, home of the New England
Patriots. Owner Bob Kraft wanted to complement the new Gillette Stadium, and as such, built Patriot
Place. This mega-mall comprises the 500 acres surrounding the stadium and includes a four-star hotel,
16 restaurants, a 14-screen movie theatre, a full-service hospital, and myriad shops and retail outlets. It
is estimated that Patriot Place brings in $2 million in tax revenue to Foxborough each year.
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Pro Sports helps Economy
Stadiums supported by economics throughout the country
Tom Griffin, UW Columnist, 1997,
https://www.washington.edu/alumni/columns/june97/game1.html
When asked why public funds should finance private facilities for professional sports, supporters cite
economics. Football Northwest, Allen's group advocating a new stadium, notes, "Even if you aren't a
football fan, the high level of economic activity generated by the Seahawks does affect you. Because of
the revenues generated by professional football--$5.4 million are contributed to the local and state
general funds--everyone benefits. The Seahawks' total annual economic impact in Washington state is
$129 million. In King County alone, the Seahawks generate $103 million per year."
These arguments are made throughout the U.S. When Baltimore lured the Cleveland Browns with the
promise of a $200 million stadium, Maryland Gov. Parris Glenening said the deal would generate 1,400
new jobs and $123 million annually to the Maryland economy.
Stadiums have economic benefits
Sarah Wilhelm, Ph.D. Economic Research and Consulting, April 1, 2008, Public Funding of
Sports Stadiums Policy Brief: 04-30-08, http://cppa.utah.edu/_documents/publications/financetax/sports-stadiums.pdf (note that author concludes that economic benefits are overstated but that
public social benefits may justify sport subsidies)
Economic Benefits
1. Franchise Owners Profits. Obviously, franchise owners will save if they do not have to
finance the entire cost of the new stadium. Evidence suggests that individual sports
franchises income will increase by $10-40 million ($13.5-54 million in 2008 dollars) with
a new stadium.7
2. Job Creation and Increased Incomes. Jobs will be created in the construction of the
stadium, in the operation of the stadium once completed, and in surrounding businesses.
Local hotels and restaurants will see an increase in customers due to attendance at events
at the stadium. Personal income of the community will increase because of the jobs
created (including those of the athletes whose income is well above local averages).
3. Tax Revenue Increases. Sales and income tax revenues will increase because of the
increased spending in and around the stadium and the increased personal income.
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Pro Sports helps Jobs
Sports occupations are doing well
Gwen Burrow, Editor July 9, 2013, EMSI, http://www.economicmodeling.com/2013/07/09/notjust-a-game-the-impact-of-sports-on-u-s-economy/
The six sports occupations are doing well, collectively growing 12% since 2009. Umpires, referees, and
other sports officials and athletes & sports competitors have grown the most at 14% each. Gaming &
sports book writers & runners have grown the least (6%). The athletes themselves, of course, taken in
the best median hourly pay: $26.93. (Yes, we know that’s wildly off for the big-time athletes, but this
figure is dragged down by the more humble wage-earners.) Sports jobs have a multiplier of 2.3, which
means that for every job, another 1.3 is created through supply-chain effects.
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Pro Sports subsidies do not undermine other public services
Pro Sports subsidies come from new revenues—not from cuts in other programs
Dennis Coates, professor of economics at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County,
April 29, 2008, A Closer Look at Stadiums, http://www.american.com/archive/2008/april-04-08/acloser-look-at-stadium-subsidies
It is not quite correct to argue that local governments could use the tax revenues they spend on
stadiums in “better” ways, such as on schools or health programs. Typically, the funding for stadiums
does not come directly out of an existing government budget but rather from a new source of revenue,
like special taxes on tickets or add-ons to the local sales tax. The municipality likely would not impose
these taxes for any purpose other than subsidizing the stadium, so other governmental services are not
necessarily being shortchanged. (Of course, the increased taxes do reduce the disposable income of
local consumers, so the stadium subsidy does impose opportunity costs on citizens, despite having no
such effect on the government’s budget.)
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Page 20
Pro Sports Community Philanthropy
Professional Sports engage in social philanthropy bettering their communities
David Lasday , Program Director for Netanya Hoops For Kids, November 29, 2011 ,
http://www.sportsnetworker.com/2011/11/28/social-impact-of-professional-sports-teams/
Professional sports teams around the world are leveraging their brand and resources to better their
communities. The social impact of sports philanthropy is growing, but it is still in the relatively early
stage of development. Professional sports teams build programs with social impact missions to address
a whole host of social issues, from bringing sport to underprivileged populations, empowering young
women, teaching healthy lifestyles and encouraging children to stay in school. Today’s professional
sports team possesses all the tools for a successful social good program.
Pro Sport subsidies have community business and union support
Tom Ziller, SBNation writer on the NBA, November 21, 2013, Pay to play,
http://www.sbnation.com/2013/11/21/5129434/stadium-arena-public-funding-kings-sonics-braves
Who backs arena subsidies? Well, the teams and leagues, obviously. As we've established, they have
plenty of money to fund favorable research, conduct expensive and time-consuming outreach and,
when push comes to shove, buy campaign ads. The business community tends to support these
endeavors, too; Seattle and Sacramento each benefited from huge assistance from locally-based
corporations in recent subsidy efforts. Labor groups are on board if brought on board; builders of all
stripes like the work, too. More recently those who support "smart growth" policies are more likely to
be strong backers of arena and stadium projects if downtown revitalization is a piece of the puzzle;
these interests add some additional, traditionally liberal punch to the equation.
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Page 21
Pro Sports support Community Based Sports for Youth
Pro Sports support for youth sports is critical to meeting demand for children to play
Up 2 Us, Leading a national movement to advance sports as a tool for addressing the
critical issues facing youth in this nation, September 26,2011, How Professional Sports
Teams Can Invest In Community Programming
https://0ea29dd9a16d63dcc571314f1dcf5bee97a05ffca38f060fb9e3.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/uploads/center_resource/document/401/Prof
essional_Teams_and_Community_Engagement.pdf
Throughout the nation, thousands of community-based sports programs apply for grants through the
philanthropic grant arms of their local professional athletic teams. For example, South Bronx United,
which uses soccer as a vehicle for social change, has benefitted from a grant by the New Yankee Stadium
Community Benefits Fund. Homegrown Lacrosse, which applies a sports-based youth development
approach to lacrosse in Minnesota, receives funding from the local professional lacrosse team to fund a
full year of in-school programming. In every case that can be cited, direct grants from professional teams
are critical for keeping these programs functioning. This is especially the case in these difficult financial
times where youth sports are being cut from schools and nonprofits are struggling to meet demand
from children who want to play.
Sports Participation is critical to kids’ health and success in life
Up 2 Us, Leading a national movement to advance sports as a tool for addressing the
critical issues facing youth in this nation, September 26,2011, How Professional Sports
Teams Can Invest In Community Programming
https://0ea29dd9a16d63dcc571314f1dcf5bee97a05ffca38f060fb9e3.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/uploads/center_resource/document/401/Prof
essional_Teams_and_Community_Engagement.pdf
Sports participation among youth in this country is declining in every major sport. Recent trends like
sweeping cuts to school athletics and the institution of pay-to-play have drastically limited the
opportunities for youth, especially in low-income communities. Not only is this a threat to the future
talent pool of major sports franchises in this nation, but it is a threat to the wellbeing of youth. At
present, this nation faces an unprecedented health crisis based on the increasingly sedentary lifestyles
of children. Participation in sports not only prevents childhood obesity, but it has also been linked to
reducing dropout rates, gang participation, teen pregnancy, and other high-risk behaviors. For a kid,
especially one in a low-income community, playing a sport is not a “frivolous extra” to fill in after-school
hours, it is an essential building block for his/her success in life.
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Page 22
Pro Sports supports LGBTQ rights
Professional Sports Gay Acceptance is so common, it is not a big deal anymore
Lisa Fernandez and Jonathan Schuppe, July 8, 2013
http://www.nbcchicago.com/news/sports/NBAs-Jason-Collins-Comes-Out-First-Openly-Gay-Pro-AthleteSports-Illustrated-205240771.html#ixzz3Beu85jyJ
Polls show that Americans, including its politicians, are more comfortable with gay marriage, and in
other countries, active gay team athletes have already come out of the closet. That includes English
rugby player Gareth Thomas, Australian rugby player Ian Roberts and English footballer Justin Fashanu,
who ended up committing suicide.
Collins "has come out at an interesting historic time," said Eric Anderson, an American sociologist who
studies homosexuality in sport at the University of Winchester in the United Kingdom. "We are riding a
wave of acceptability."
Anderson argued that the reaction to Collins' announcement will be noteworthy in that many people,
especially those under 30, will just shrug.
"For a decade we thought it was going to be this ginormous big deal, but we've had so many pro-gay
professional athletes making pro-gay statements that it's kind of not a big deal anymore," Anderson
said. "This is a profound cultural moment, but for the youth, they're going to think, 'Yeah, so what?'
Sports has turned the corner, it is now standing up for LGBTQ athletes
Daniel Cameron, contributor with ChicagoPride.com, June 29, 2013 Chicago's pro sports
teams support LGBTQ community, participate in Pride Parade
http://chicago.gopride.com/news/article.cfm/articleid/43373241
Bill Gubrud, executive director of the recently-created National Gay and Lesbian Hall of Fame, said there
is clear indication the tide is starting to turn when it comes to gay athletes in professional sports.
"Before it was taboo to even mention gays and sports together in the same sentence and now we are
seeing more and more straight allies standing up for the rights of LGBTQ athletes," he said. "I am looking
forward to the day where we do not say that someone is the first gay athlete of this team or this sport. I
believe that day is right around the corner. Currently there is an openly gay boxer, NBA player and
multiple WNBA players."
Gay and Lesbians are more involved in professional sports
Nielsen Newswire, June 26, 2013, http://gopride.com/Z8ie
Gay and lesbian consumers—professional athletes or not—are also sports enthusiasts off the courts and
fields. In many ways, they’re bigger aficionados than average fans. For instance, adult gay and lesbian
Internet users are 11 percent more likely than the average adult online to attend pro sporting events,
according to Nielsen, and 7 percent more likely to participate in an adult sports league.
Gay and lesbian adults are 51 percent more likely than the average adult to watch sports-related videos
online and 28 percent more likely to boot up their computer to get their sports news. They’re also big
fans of fantasy sports, as they’re 39 percent more likely to play fantasy sports online than the average
adult Internet user.
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Page 23
Pro Sports promotes green energy
Pro Sports green energy efforts deserve applause
Kade Benfield, Writer about community, development, and the environment,
September 12, 2012, National Resources Defense Council,
http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kbenfield/how_sports_are_helping_to_gree.html
Solar panels and recycling bins are becoming as common as hot dog vendors for professional sports
teams and their venues, according to a report released last week by my colleagues at the Natural
Resources Defense Council, in collaboration with the Green Sports Alliance. The process of putting the
industry's operations on a more sustainable course has been ongoing for some time, and it is important:
not only is the business of big-time sports highly visible in our culture, but it also can use tremendous
environmental resources and generate significant emissions (think lighting at night games, air
conditioning in domed stadiums, high-volume traffic getting to and fro). When teams, leagues, and
stadiums make significant progress in improving their performance, they deserve our applause.
Professional Sports is leading the way to a greener future
Kade Benfield, Writer about community, development, and the environment,
September 12, 2012, National Resources Defense Council,
http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kbenfield/how_sports_are_helping_to_gree.html
Allen Hershkowitz, director of our organization's green sports project, puts it this way in a press release:
“The motivation for sports to engage in greening is simple; the games we love today were born
outdoors, and without clean air to breathe, clean water and a healthy climate, sports would be
impossible. A cultural shift in environmental awareness is needed in order for us to address the serious
ecological problems we face, and the sports industry, through its own innovative actions, has chosen to
lead the way. Pro sports are showing that smart energy, water and recycling practices make sense.
They save money and prevent waste. That’s as mainstream and non-partisan as it comes.”
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Page 24
Green Energy is critical
We must develop renewables before the peak, or face major energy shocks and a
threat to our civilization
Bill Henderson, Staff Writer, February 24, 2007, Countercurrents.org, accessed 4/12/2008,
http://www.countercurrents.org/cc-henderson240207.htm
A steep spike in the price of oil, precipitated perhaps by an attack on Iran or Middle East instability
spreading the insurgency to Saudi Arabia, could lead to an economic dislocation paralyzing the global
economy. Such a shock coming at the end of cheap oil but before major development of alternative
energy economies could mean the end of civilization as we know it.
Need bold leadership to investing in alternative energy can end dependence on oil
within a generation
David Sandalow, Energy and Environment Scholar at The Brookings Institution,
January 22, 2007, Ending Oil Dependence,
http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/fellows/sandalow20070122.pdf, accessed 12/4/2008, p. i.
Plug-in hybrid engines, biofuels and other technologies can help end the United States’ oil dependence
in a generation. Doing so would provide important national security, environmental and economic
benefits. A broad political consensus and game-changing technological advances create the conditions
for dramatic change. Yet bold leadership will be needed.
Investments in research and development for alternatives is crucial to reducing oil
dependence
David Sandalow, Energy and Environment Scholar at The Brookings Institution,
January 22, 2007, Ending Oil Dependence,
http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/fellows/sandalow20070122.pdf, accessed 12/4/2008, p. 1819.
Many of the technologies we need to end oil dependence are available today. Others are almost ready
for widespread commercial use. Yet breakthroughs in nanosciences, biotechnology, genomics and other
disciplines can play an important role in helping end oil dependence more quickly. Much of the research
behind these breakthroughs will take place in the private sector. However the private sector is unlikely
to invest adequately in research with strong social benefits or pay-offs beyond the time horizons of
private companies. Public sector research also has an important role.
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Page 25
Pro Sports not sexually violent
Pro Athletes are not more prone to sexual violence
Kimberly Trebon, JD Candidate, DePaul University College of Law, 2007 , DePaul Journal of
Sports Law and Contemporary Problems,
https://laworgs.depaul.edu/journals/sports_law/Documents/There%20Is%20No%20I%20In%20Team.pd
f
Some authorities argue that athletes are no more prone to commit sexually violent acts than other
males.53 According to this argument, much greater media attention is given to cases involving athlete
versus non-athlete sexual assaults, and it is that notoriety in the press which creates the misleading
impression that athletes have a greater propensity to commit sexually violent acts.54 Advocates of this
school of thought also argue that the “empirical data has failed sufficiently to support assumptions that
the violent overtones of football, hockey, and other sports are integral to the other parts of athletes’
lives.”55
Athlete misbehavior is also attended by positive public service acts by Pro Sports
Dr. Sharianne Walker Associate Professor And Chair Of Management And Sports Management At
Western New England College School Of Business, & Dr. Michael Enz, Assistant Professor Of
Economics At Western New England College., 2006, The Impact Of Professional Sports On The Local
Economy* Western New England Law Review Vol. 29,
Http://Assets.Wne.Edu/164/15_Arti_Impact_O.Pdf
Professor Enz suggests that the impact of sports-related misconduct on a specific community can be
more subtle. He posits that, while local athlete misconduct may have a negative local impact, local
communities may ultimately benefit following national incidents involving high profile athletes. In the
aftermath of a national sports scandal, local teams and athletes are likely to redouble their efforts in
public service to counteract bad publicity, action that ultimately benefits the community.
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Page 26
Pro Sports not violent
Sports players are less violent than similar non-sports players
Ron Woods, award-winning performance coach with Human Performance Institute and
an adjunct professor at the University of Tampa and the University of South Florida., 2011, (excerpt
from Social Issues in Sport, Second Edition), http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/doeson-field-violent-behavior-lead-to-off-field-violence
Yet it is not clear that athletes are any more involved in serious crime than the general population is. In a
follow-up study, Blumstein and Benedict (1999) showed that 23% of the males in cities with a
population of 250,000 or more are arrested for a serious crime at some point in their life. That compares
with the 21.4% of NFL football players who had been arrested for something more serious than a minor
crime as reported in Benedict’s earlier study (Benedict and Yaeger 1998). In fact, when Blumstein and
Benedict compared NFL players with young men from similar racial backgrounds, they discovered that
the arrest rates for NFL players were less than half that of the other group for crimes of domestic
violence and nondomestic assaults. Is it difficult or nearly impossible to turn the violence off as soon as
practice or the game is over? The majority of athletes who display violent on-field behavior don’t
continue their aggression off the field. If they did, the court records and news media would surely let us
know. We simply do not have enough research to address this question, nor do we have complete data
on the incidence of domestic violence by athletes. Most families prefer not to publicize such incidents
until they become frequent or incapacitating, and most women do not wish to press charges.
Link from sports to drunk aggression is false
Patrice Lemieux, Stuart J. McKelvie and Dale Stout, Department of Psychology,
Bishop's University, December 2002, Self-reported Hostile Aggression in Contact Athletes, No
Contact Athletes and Non-athletes
http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol4Iss3/SelfReportedAggression.htm
Scores on the aggression questionnaire (reflecting general levels of aggressive behavior and feelings),
reported incidents of actual fighting, and reported frequency of alcohol involvement in fighting, were all
higher contact than for no contact athletes. However, these differences also occurred with matched
control groups of non-athletes, indicating that they were a function of physical stature rather than type
of sport Overall, there was no support for the learning or catharsis theories of aggression in sport,
although they are consistent with the idea that size is a factor in the selection of contact athletes.
Together with the fact that alcohol was stated to be a factor in fighting less often for athletes than for
non-athletes, the results undermine the media image of the aggressive, drunken athlete, at least for
university students.
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Page 27
Pro Sports entertains people
Pro Sports helps the economy and is entertaining
Antonio Danova, IBIS Analyst, February 1, 2013, IBIS World,
http://www.ibisworld.com/media/2013/02/01/sports-franchises-and-their-key-downstream-industries/
Professional sports franchises are big business in the American economy. The industry hauls in an
estimated $23.5 billion in revenue and has been growing at an annualized rate of 3.0% during the past
five years. Though the four major professional sports leagues – the National Football League (NFL),
Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League
(NHL) – all play games on different schedules, the start of a new year typically highlights a prime spot in
the calendar for all sports fans. Right now, the NFL’s Super Bowl is around the corner, the NBA regular
season is in full swing, the NHL recently reached a deal to end its lockout and started its new season in
mid-January, and MLB preseason and opening day are right around the corner in March.
Needless to say, professional sports leagues will keep Americans engrossed in the next few months,
providing entertainment on several levels. Sports fans can enjoy attending games live, watching from
home with friends and family, or showing their support for a team by sporting its merchandise. When
fandom is high, not only does the Sports Franchise industry benefit, but several other industries look to
cash in.
Pro Sports provides value to home city people’s lives—engagement and economic
Dr. Sharianne Walker Associate Professor And Chair Of Management And Sports Management At
Western New England College School Of Business, & Dr. Michael Enz, Assistant Professor Of
Economics At Western New England College., 2006, The Impact Of Professional Sports On The Local
Economy* Western New England Law Review Vol. 29,
Http://Assets.Wne.Edu/164/15_Arti_Impact_O.Pdf
Even though they are hard to quantify, Professor Enz explains that the intangible benefits from hosting a
professional sports team can nonetheless be significant to a community. Placing a dollar value on the
sense of civic pride that comes from following a local sports team may appear impossible. From an
economist's perspective, however, Professor Enz suggests that because people spend time following
teams, and time has a monetary value, citizens place value on personal engagement with the team.
While it is difficult to measure in a dollar amount what that value is to anyone individual, it is important
to acknowledge that for some people, the mere existence of a team in their home city adds value to
their lives.
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Page 28
Pro Sports revitalizes communities
Pro Sports revitalized downtowns attracting young people and stopping brain drain
Dr. Sharianne Walker Associate Professor And Chair Of Management And Sports Management At
Western New England College School Of Business, & Dr. Michael Enz, Assistant Professor Of
Economics At Western New England College., 2006, The Impact Of Professional Sports On The Local
Economy* Western New England Law Review Vol. 29,
Http://Assets.Wne.Edu/164/15_Arti_Impact_O.Pdf
Another important benefit of downtown and local area development is increased public perception
about the quality of life in Springfield. Mr. Denver reports that the Chamber of Commerce has been
interested in keeping local college students in the area after graduation, thereby preventing the "brain
drain" that occurs when they leave. The Chamber of Commerce believes many graduates move, in part,
because of their belief that there is little to do in Springfield. For Mr. Denver, an active and vital
downtown that offers restaurants, clubs, theaters, concerts, a convention center, and professional
sports makes Springfield a more attractive place to live, and may attract more young professionals who
are valuable resources to the local economy.
Subsidies for professional sports are viewed as important to a community, self-esteem
and social cohesion
Roger I. Abrams, Richardson Professor of Law, Northeastern University, April 2013
Hardball in City Hall: Public Financing of Sports Stadiums,
http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=pipself
Proponents of public subsidies have posited that new construction provides social benefits to members
of the community, enhancing self-esteem and social cohesiveness. Not only do people feel better about
their city, outsiders do as well. Cities make investments in the “good will” of their communities all the
time. Museums, libraries, schools and clean streets enhance the public’s perception and attract
outsiders to come and visit or even relocate. Although it may be difficult to monetize these intangible
social benefits, no one doubts that they are real. While Art Modell may have been engaged in
exaggeration by suggesting that a football team is more important to a community than thirty libraries,
it seems that having a home club is more significant to the public than reconstructing its schools or
repaving its roads.
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Page 29
Pro Sports improves quality of life
Sports improve the quality of life
Robert Baade and Victor Matheson, Department of Economics at Lake Forest College
and College of Holy Cross, 2011, Financing Professional Sports Facilities,
http://college.holycross.edu/RePEc/spe/MathesonBaade_FinancingSports.pdf
If sports teams and events bring little in the way of direct economic benefits, do potential indirect
benefits exist? Here the evidence is much more favorable to athletic supporters. Clearly sports are an
entertainment option favored by many. Although the professional sports industry in the United States is
only roughly the same size as the cardboard box industry, cardboard boxes don‟t warrant multiple
channels on cable television, have a dedicated section in most newspapers, and are not the focus of
frequent discussions around the office water cooler. Sports serve as a municipal amenity that can create
social capital and improve the quality of life.
Sports create civic pride and fan happiness
Sarah Wilhelm, Ph.D. Economic Research and Consulting, April 1, 2008, Public Funding of
Sports Stadiums Policy Brief: 04-30-08, http://cppa.utah.edu/_documents/publications/financetax/sports-stadiums.pdf (note that author concludes that economic benefits are overstated but that
public social benefits may justify sport subsidies)
Quality of Life Benefits
1. Consumer Surplus. Attendance at sporting events can create what economists call
consumer surplus 8. Consumer surplus is the difference between what a fan is willing to
pay for a seat at the game, and what they actually have to pay. A fan who was willing to
pay $800 to attend a playoff game but only had to pay $50 for their ticket gained $750 in
consumer surplus. Measuring the surplus is difficult if not impossible.9
2. Fan Happiness. A local sports franchise may create benefits for fans who never attend a
single game. Fans may follow the franchise in the media and discuss the franchise with
friends, family and coworkers. More than half of the U.S. population lives in a metro area
that hosts one or more franchises from the four major professional sports leagues (MLB,
NBA, NFL, NHL). 10 Again, this is a benefit that is difficult to quantify in standard
economic terms.
3. Civic Pride. A local sports franchise will create civic pride, essentially putting the city
“on the map.” Cities with a sports franchise may be viewed as “world class” or a “major”
city.
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Page 30
Pro Sports subsidies consistent with civic democracy
Sport subsidies are part of a public-private Nordic democratic commitment to the
community
Nik Brandal, Øivind Bratberg, Dag Einar Thorsen, 2013, The Nordic Model of Social
Democracy
Such incorporation comes in many forms, through ministerial boards and pre-legislative consultation but
also through Public subsidies, ranging from sports associations to charity organizations for poverty relief.
Some of the early women’s organizations are integral parts of this system as well. Starting as selffinanced and autonomous associations in support of family health (e.g., through health control for
young moth ers), these associations would venture into cooperation with the welfare state, financially
and in allocation of tasks. In the Norwegian case, health control stations became a responsibility of the
municipalities during the 1970s, while the issue of family health was expanded to cover integration of
minority women. Thus, rather than a millstone around the neck of civil society, the state can also be an
enabler. Private donations, according to the social democratic approach, should not make or break the
construction of a local football field, nor should help for the urban homeless be dependent on charity.
Public institutions, moreover, are also arenas for community and mutual learning: Kindergartens and
schools very clearly perform this role. The public/private/civic interaction provides an instructive
example of how the Nordic model of social democracy differs profoundly from the logic of the laissezfaire state. When resources are collected by the state and channelled through civil society alongside the
public sector, it draws on a legacy of popular movements and voluntary association that is also a key
part of the Scandinavian societies, a legacy that several political camps subscribe to.
Sports subsidies are democratic, politicians know their sport votes affect elections
Roger I. Abrams, Richardson Professor of Law, Northeastern University, April 2013
Hardball in City Hall: Public Financing of Sports Stadiums,
http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=pipself
The presence or absence of a local professional sports franchise certainly has a political value. Although
rarely expressed in such stark terms, a mayor who is responsible for a city’s loss of its football, baseball,
or basketball franchise – hockey does not have the same weight, except in Canada – will suffer at the
polls. On the other hand, the executive who saves the city’s franchise by responding to its demands will
likely benefit at the polls. It is, of course, possible that politicians who stand up against the demands of
sports franchises may reap at least short-term political benefits depending on the desires of the
electorate. While most voters dislike the idea of subsidizing wealthy entrepreneurs, whether in sports or
other businesses, when it comes to losing your football team, the downside risks may later convert
political courage into a disaster at the polls. Good politicians can gauge the political exchange; poor
politicians head for retirement.
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Page 31
Con Evidence
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Page 32
Pro Sports Subsidies cost cities millions
Pro Sport Lease agreements have hidden clauses costing millions of dollars to cities
Neil deMause contributing editor for City Limits, a contributing writer for Extra!, and a
frequent contributor to the Village Voice and Slate, August 21, 2013 Al Jazeera America, 5:00AM ET
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/8/21/pay-to-play.html
Even team owners building new stadiums have begun seeking annual operating subsidies. Earlier this
year, when Atlanta agreed to provide billionaire Atlanta Falcons owner (and Home Depot founder)
Arthur Blank with $200 million in hotel tax money to help pay for a new stadium to replace the 20-yearold Georgia Dome, it tacked on an additional bonus: Any leftover hotel tax money after the first $200
million would spill over into a so-called waterfall fund that Blank could then tap for any future
maintenance or operating expenses. Estimated cost: an extra $300 million.
The Atlanta deal is a perfect example of how subsidies are increasingly buried deep within lease
agreements that are seldom if ever carefully scrutinized by politicians or the media. The waterfall fund
was only revealed when a local business writer exposed it on her own blog — and even then, it was
rarely mentioned in subsequent media stories or in legislative debates.
"You've really got to go through these deals in detail to figure out if they're getting [subsidies] or not,"
says West Virginia University economist Brad Humphreys. "It's not like the lease agreement says we're
cutting you a check every year."
Subsides for Pro Sports are financed by cutting pension benefits and public service
David Sirota, senior writer at the International Business Times, July 31, 2014 , SFGate,
http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/article/Stadium-subsidies-are-financed-by-pension-cuts-5645594.php
Many Detroit retirees now face big cuts to their previously negotiated retirement benefits. At the same
time, the public is on the hook for $283 million toward the new stadium.
The budget maneuvers in Michigan are part of a larger trend across the country. As Pacific Standard
magazine reports, "Over the past 20 years, 101 new sports facilities have opened in the United States - a
90 percent replacement rate - and almost all of them have received direct public funding." Many of
those subsidies are being effectively financed by the savings accrued from pension benefit reductions
and cuts to public services.
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Pro Sports Subsidies don’t help the economy
Big Spending on Pro Sports has little to even negative impact on cities
Neil deMause contributing editor for City Limits, a contributing writer for Extra!, and a
frequent contributor to the Village Voice and Slate, August 21, 2013 Al Jazeera America, Do cities
gain from subsidizing sports teams?, 5:00AM ET http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/8/21/payto-play.html
Economists who've studied sports deals say that spending big to lure new teams, or keep old ones,
almost never pays off. In one much-repeated study, Lake Forest College economist Robert A. Baade
examined 30 cities that had recently built new sports venues. In 27, there was no measurable impact on
per-capita income, while in the other three, income appeared to have gone down as a result. Even if the
Pacers, say, had left town after being denied a new round of subsidies, studies indicate that the
economic impacts would have been less than dire: When Humphreys and Dennis Coates of the
University of Maryland looked at income data for cities that lost their teams, as well as during sports
league strikes and lockouts, they found no significant effects. "The departure of a franchise in any
sport," they wrote, "has never significantly lowered real per capita personal income in a metropolitan
area."
Publically funded stadium are economic losers, costing much more than claimed and
providing only temporary, non-community jobs
Brian Schaefer, doctoral student in the Justice Administration program at the University of
Louisville , November 15, 2013, The (Broken) Economics of Professional Sports Stadiums, The Society
Pages, http://thesocietypages.org/sociologylens/2013/11/15/the-broken-economics-of-professionalsports-stadiums/
The notion that publicly funded stadiums creates job and generate income for the local economy has
long been disputed by economists. Researchers indicate that the jobs created by new stadiums are
temporary construction jobs filled by out-of-state contractors or low-paying service-oriented (janitor,
food sales) jobs working at the stadium. The real issue with building new stadiums is that the cost tends
to rise quickly and cities end up paying more than they originally planned. Judith Grant Long (2012), in a
study on the cost of professional sports stadiums, found that the average public cost for a new stadium
jumped from $142 million in 1990 to $241 million in the 2000s, an increase of 70 percent. Long found
that cities have drastically underestimated the true costs of the projects. The local governments fail to
consider the loss in revenue from public subsidizing land and infrastructure, the continuing costs of
operation, loss of property taxes, and increased demand for municipal services around stadiums (traffic
cops). Long suggests that if these factors were included in the cost projects, the overall cost would
increase 25 percent.
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Pro Sports Subsidies don’t help the economy
Pro Sport Facility subsidies have very little economic benefit to a local community
Andrew Zimbalist Professor of Economics, Smith College and Roger G. Noll Nonresident
Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, 1997, Brookings: Sports, Jobs, & Taxes: Are New Stadiums
Worth the Cost?, http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/1997/06/summer-taxes-noll
In our forthcoming Brookings book, Sports, Jobs, and Taxes, we and 15 collaborators examine the local
economic development argument from all angles: case studies of the effect of specific facilities, as well
as comparisons among cities and even neighborhoods that have and have not sunk hundreds of millions
of dollars into sports development. In every case, the conclusions are the same. A new sports facility has
an extremely small (perhaps even negative) effect on overall economic activity and employment. No
recent facility appears to have earned anything approaching a reasonable return on investment. No
recent facility has been self-financing in terms of its impact on net tax revenues. Regardless of whether
the unit of analysis is a local neighborhood, a city, or an entire metropolitan area, the economic benefits
of sports facilities are de minimus.
Pro Sport Economic Spending would have just been spent on other recreation
Andrew Zimbalist Professor of Economics, Smith College and Roger G. Noll Nonresident
Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, 1997, Brookings: Sports, Jobs, & Taxes: Are New Stadiums
Worth the Cost?, http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/1997/06/summer-taxes-noll
One promotional study estimated that the local annual economic impact of the Denver Broncos was
nearly $120 million; another estimated that the combined annual economic benefit of Cincinnati's
Bengals and Reds was $245 million. Such promotional studies overstate the economic impact of a facility
because they confuse gross and net economic effects. Most spending inside a stadium is a substitute for
other local recreational spending, such as movies and restaurants. Similarly, most tax collections inside a
stadium are substitutes: as other entertainment businesses decline, tax collections from them fall.
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Pro Sports economic benefits should be questioned
Studies and claims of economic benefits of Pro Sports are biased and should be
viewed skeptically
Dr. Sharianne Walker Associate Professor And Chair Of Management And Sports Management At
Western New England College School Of Business, & Dr. Michael Enz, Assistant Professor Of
Economics At Western New England College., 2006, The Impact Of Professional Sports On The Local
Economy* Western New England Law Review Vol. 29,
Http://Assets.Wne.Edu/164/15_Arti_Impact_O.Pdf
Dr. Michael Enz, Assistant Professor of Economics at Western New England College, suggests that there
is theoretical support for using a smaller multiplier in sport-specific studies. As such, he suggests that
derived estimates should be conservatively stated. Critics of higher multipliers point out that, for a
variety of reasons, individuals performing these studies may have incentives to produce optimistic
findings.16 Specifically, there is potential bias when these studies are commissioned by sports or
business professionals who want to put forward the best-case scenario, presumably to secure funding or
garner support for sports-related projects. Professor Enz notes that since the empirical work depends on
including certain variables or using certain assumptions that could alter the results, they should be
viewed with a critical eye. For this reason, he says, these studies are far from perfect and it is important
to look closely at their underlying assumptions.
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Pro Sports leads to job losses
Stadium subsidies harm cities, lead to job losses and program cuts
Pat Garofalo economic policy editor for ThinkProgress.org and Travis Waldron,
economics and sports reporter for ThinkProgress.org, Sep 7 2012, the Atlantic,
http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/09/if-you-build-it-they-might-not-come-the-riskyeconomics-of-sports-stadiums/260900/
Another reason the projects rarely make sense is because of the way they are structured. Stadiums and
arenas are financed with long-term bonds, meaning cities and states will be stuck with the debt for long
periods of time (often 30 years). And while cities make 30-year commitments to finance stadiums, their
commitments to government workers and other local investments are often made on a year-to-year
basis, meaning that, just as in Glendale, it becomes easier to eliminate public sector jobs and programs
than to default on debt incurred from arenas.
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Pro Sports increases wealth disparity
NFL owners receive more money from the public than needed
Gregg Easterbrook, contributing editor at The Atlantic, October 2013,
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/10/how-the-nfl-fleecestaxpayers/309448/?single_page=true
Judith Grant Long, a Harvard University professor of urban planning, calculates that league-wide, 70
percent of the capital cost of NFL stadiums has been provided by taxpayers, not NFL owners. Many
cities, counties, and states also pay the stadiums’ ongoing costs, by providing power, sewer services,
other infrastructure, and stadium improvements. When ongoing costs are added, Long’s research finds,
the Buffalo Bills, Cincinnati Bengals, Cleveland Browns, Houston Texans, Indianapolis Colts, Jacksonville
Jaguars, Kansas City Chiefs, New Orleans Saints, San Diego Chargers, St. Louis Rams, Tampa Bay
Buccaneers, and Tennessee Titans have turned a profit on stadium subsidies alone—receiving more
money from the public than they needed to build their facilities. Long’s estimates show that just three
NFL franchises—the New England Patriots, New York Giants, and New York Jets—have paid threequarters or more of their stadium capital costs.
Subsidies for Pro Sports is a wealth transfer of billions of dollars
Pat Garofalo, Writer for Think Progress, Posted on February 11, 2013 updated, Think
Progress, http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2012/09/05/801341/america-4-billion-sports-stadiums/
These bonds raise money to pay for construction and improvements, enabling wealthy franchise owners
to avoid paying for their own stadiums or fancy new upgrades. Individuals who invest in the bonds then
receive tax exemptions, lowering government revenue; so the subsidy for stadium construction “comes
out of the pockets of every American taxpayer.” Using bonds to finance stadium construction is nothing
more than a transfer of taxpayer money to wealthy franchise owners whose teams can be worth billions
of dollars.
Spending on Pro Sports concentrates wealth and provides mostly low paying jobs
Andrew Zimbalist Professor of Economics, Smith College and Roger G. Noll Nonresident
Senior Fellow, Economic Studies, 1997, Brookings: Sports, Jobs, & Taxes: Are New Stadiums
Worth the Cost?, http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/1997/06/summer-taxes-noll
Promotional studies also fail to take into account differences between sports and other industries in
income distribution. Most sports revenue goes to a relatively few players, managers, coaches, and
executives who earn extremely high salaries—all well above the earnings of people who work in the
industries that are substitutes for sports. Most stadium employees work part time at very low wages
and earn a small fraction of team revenues. Thus, substituting spending on sports for other recreational
spending concentrates income, reduces the total number of jobs, and replaces full-time jobs with lowwage, part-time jobs.
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Wealth Disparity Inequality is bad
While some inequality is inevitable, institutional barriers to equality are unjust
Brian Garst, Dir. of Government Affairs for the Center for Freedom and Prosperity, February 2013,
“Income Inequality: A Progressive Tax System Isn't the Best Solution,” Policy Mic, Accessed 6-29-2013,
http://www.policymic.com/debates/26809/income-inequality-a-progressive-tax-system-isn-t-the-bestsolution
Inequality that results from genuine differences in ability, skill and work ethic shouldn't be of much
concern from a policy perspective – in a free society, such differing results are not only expected, but
are a necessary and desirable part of the competitive system – but when inequality is caused by
institutional barriers that hold some groups down, or unfairly benefit others, it is of greater concern.
Equality is the pre-requisite to realizing all other social goods and define the “just”
Edward N. Zalta, Principle Editor, June 27, 2007, “Equality,” The Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Accessed
6/29/2013, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/equality/
The presumption of equality is a prima facie principle of equal distribution for all goods politically suited
for the process of public distribution. In the domain of political justice, all members of a given community,
taken together as a collective body, have to decide centrally on the fair distribution of social goods, as well as on
the distribution's fair realization. Any claim to a particular distribution, including any existing distributive scheme,
has to be impartially justified, i.e., no ownership will be recognized without justification. Applied to this political
domain, the presumption of equality requires that everyone, regardless of differences, should get an
equal share in the distribution unless certain types of differences are relevant and justify, through
universally acceptable reasons, unequal distribution.
Poverty is a form of unending structural violence
Mumia Abu-Jamal, jailed activist, September 19, 1998, “A Quiet an Deadly Violence,” ACC. 510-12, http://www.mumia.nl/TCCDMAJ/quietdv.htm
We live, equally immersed, and to a deeper degree, in a nation that condones and ignores wide-ranging
"structural" violence, of a kind that destroys human life with a breathtaking ruthlessness. Former
Massachusetts prison official and writer, Dr. James Gilligan observes; "By `structural violence' I mean
the increased rates of death and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society, as
contrasted by those who are above them. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large
proportion of them) are a function of the class structure; and that structure is itself a product of
society's collective human choices, concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society.
These are not acts of God. I am contrasting `structural' with `behavioral violence' by which I mean the
non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against
individuals, such as the deaths we attribute to homicide, suicide, soldiers in warfare, capital punishment,
and so on."
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Pro Sports violence and sexual violence
Sports encourages violence and sexual assault
Kimberly Trebon, JD Candidate, DePaul University College of Law, 2007 , DePaul Journal of
Sports Law and Contemporary Problems,
https://laworgs.depaul.edu/journals/sports_law/Documents/There%20Is%20No%20I%20In%20Team.pd
f
Other authorities reject that view and instead argue that athletes are disproportionately involved in
incidents of sexual assault.6 These authorities stress two particularly important factors in support of
their position. First,. they argue that existing research does in fact establish that athletes may be slightly
more prone to violence; for example, Todd Crosset’s 1995 study found that athletes appear to be
disproportionately involved in incidents of sexual assault on college and university campuses.57 Second,
although adherents to this view recognize that sexual violence is the product of multiple variables i.e.,
media promotion of violence, a patriarchal system, myths about rape, and sexual values they identify
the athletic sub-culture as the significant contributor to an individual athlete’s greater propensity to
engage in sexual violence.58 For example, physical aggression during games and sexist
conduct/language in the locker room combine together in ways that predispose some male athletes
towards off-field sexual violence.59 Based on this line of reasoning, involvement in sports may cause
athletes who commit sexual assault to deem such behavior acceptable because, in their minds, the act
of rape is immunized and overcome by the familiar feelings of power, control, and strength normally
associated with sports.6° According to this school of thought, our society endorses aggressive, violent
behavior from males, when such conduct is manifested through sports.61
Many Pro Athletes are arrested for sex related felonies and few cases lead to
conviction
Kimberly Trebon, JD Candidate, DePaul University College of Law, 2007 , DePaul Journal of
Sports Law and Contemporary Problems,
https://laworgs.depaul.edu/journals/sports_law/Documents/There%20Is%20No%20I%20In%20Team.pd
f
According to a study conducted by Jeff Benedict, a lawyer and former Director of. Research at the
Center for Sports in Society, 172 professional athletes were arrested for sex related felonies between
1986 and 1995.144 The same study found that of those 172 professional athletes, only thirty-one
percent were successfully prosecuted..’45 Considering that so few cases involving professional athletes
who commit sexually violent crimes ever make it to the conviction stage, these statistics are even more
dramatic.146 .
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Pro Sports violence and sexual violence
Pro Athletes get away with sex crimes; they are much less likely to be convicted of
intimate violence crimes than non-athletes
Justin Peters, Writer for Slate, December 4, 2012, No, Seriously, the NFL Really Does Have a
Domestic Violence Problem,
http://www.slate.com/blogs/crime/2012/12/04/jovan_belcher_murder_suicide_no_seriously_the_nfl_r
eally_does_have_a_domestic.html
What has been shown in research is that professional athletes are much less likely to be convicted of
intimate violence crimes than are non-athletes. In a 1997 study, Northeastern University’s Jeffrey
Benedict and Alan Klein found that the athletes in their sample who were charged with sexual assault
were only convicted 31 percent of the time, compared with a 54 percent conviction rate for the general
population. In 1995, Maryann Hudson at the Los Angeles Times found that athletes charged with
domestic violence were only convicted 36 percent of the time, compared with a 77 percent general
conviction rate. In a 2010 Harvard Law Review article, Bethany Withers wrote that “conviction rates for
athletes are astonishingly low compared to the arrest statistics. Though there is evidence that the
responsiveness of police and prosecution to sexual assault complaints involving athletes is favorable,
there is an off-setting pro-athlete bias on the part of juries.”
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Page 41
Sexual Violence is a major impact
Rape is immoral- it is an expression of an immoral character and devaluates both
attacker and survivor
Stop Rape [online activist site dedicated to spreading knowledge and prevention techniques against
rape]¶ April 2011¶ http://stop-rape.blogspot.com/2011/04/why-rape-is-immoral-and-criminal.html
Rape damage people's prospect for happiness, and violates individual's rights. Therefore, rape is both
immoral and criminal. The Effects of Rape Rape bears greater risks to the rapist than any benefits s/he
could possibly obtain – which are just shallow and fleeting. Engaging in rape damages the rapist's own character
and his pursuit of happiness. If a person rapes another human, s/he becomes the sort of person s/he can only despise when sane – as s/he
would despise anyone who raped him/her. Thus,
rape is an expression of an immoral character. No one wants to be raped.
The psychological effects of rape can be devastating to the survivor's prospect of happiness. It is not
only a violent attack to the body, but also a torture of the mind. It damages a part of the “soul” – that
may never be fully healed.
Rape has disastrous physical and psychological consequences for survivors
Samantha Gluck [journalist, specializing in healthcare trends, mental health, health and fitness. A
member of the Association of Health Care Journalists, Samantha contributes regularly to Balanced Living
Magazine] 2012¶ Effects of Rape: Psychological and Physical Effects of Rape¶
http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/rape/effects-of-rape-psychological-and-physical-effects-of-rape/
The effects of rape can include both the initial physical trauma as well as deep psychological trauma.
Although rape victims commonly report injuries and issues with their reproductive health after the sexual assault, rape doesn't always
involve physical force. The most common and lasting effects of rape involve mental health concerns and
diminished social confidence.¶ Physical effects of rape can arise from both forced sexual assault and
those not involving forcible submission, such as drug assisted date rape. Forced sexual assault frequently causes visible bruising
or bleeding in and around the vaginal or anal area and bruises on other parts of the body from coercive violence. But both forced and
other types of rape can have many other physical consequences:¶ Painful intercourse (with significant other)¶
Urinary infections¶ Uterine fibroids – non-cancerous tumors in muscle wall¶ Pregnancy¶ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) –
HIV, genital warts, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others
Rape’s psychological implications are extreme- the mental effects last much longer
than the mental damage
Shukumisa [website, an online resource for rape survivors and their families] 2013¶ The
Psychological Effects of Rape¶ http://www.shukumisa.org.za/index.php/psychological-effects/
Rape is a traumatic experience that takes time to recover from. Survivors commonly experience some or
all of these emotions:¶ Anger at themselves or others¶ Powerlessness and vulnerability¶ Fear and loss of
trust¶ Shame, embarrassment and a sense of being dirty¶ Guilt or responsibility for what happened¶ Survivors often feel detached
from the people around them and feel a desire to get away from anything that reminds them of the
rape¶ Losing interest in sex is also common.¶ Depression and suicidal thoughts are not unusual reactions.¶ Rape
survivors can experience an inability to concentrate, flashbacks, nightmares, changes in sleeping and
eating habits, as well as fear of being touched by the people around them.
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Pro Sports are Violent
Sports are inherently violent and encourage violence
Nathaniel Snow , Correspondent, Mar 23, 2010, http://bleacherreport.com/articles/367924violence-and-aggression-in-sports-an-in-depth-look-part-one
It has been said of sport, "It does not create the conditions for war, but it does maintain the possibility
of those conditions, and adds its own efficiency to the other forces which produce a social order in
which trails of strength are seen as part of the natural course of things" (Holt, 2000, p. 88). George
Orwell (1950) once made the observation, "Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up
with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sadistic pleasure in witnessing violence; in
other words it is war minus the shooting." Competitive sports such as football, basketball, and baseball
may involve aggressive tactics, but actual violence is considered to fall outside the boundaries of good
sportsmanship. Contact sports, such as American football, ice hockey, rugby football, boxing, mixed
martial arts, wrestling, and water polo involve certain levels of physical violence, but include restrictions
and penalties for excessive and dangerous use of force. The overt physical actions that take place in
sports can be described as both aggression and violence (Kerr, 2002, p. 68). These actions take place for
many reasons, and can become dangerous to those participating in the sport, as well as spectators of
the competition.
Violence relies on a kill or be killed logic that renders life a calucalble value
Michael J. Nojeim, Professor of Political Science, 2004
GANDHI AND KING: THE POWER OF NONVIOLENT RESISTANCE, p. 10
With violence, the aim is to deliberately harm the opponent in order to compel the opponent’s defeat or
destruction. Harm is usually inflicted by destroying something. Destruction is a key element of violence
and usually occurs in three ways: destruction of property, destruction of peoples’ behavior, and
destruction of peoples’ psyches. In using violence, people seek to “solve” a conflict by targeting and
conquering the opponent.
On balance, violent acts only produce more violence
The Government of Tibet in Exile, 2002
DALAI LAMA’S MESSAGE ON THE COMMEMORATION OF THE 1st ANNIVERSARY OF SEPTEMBER 11, 2001, accessed
5/7/2007 http://www.tibet.com/newsroom/message1.htm.
Human conflicts do not arise out of the blue. They occur as a result of causes and conditions, many of
which are within the protagonists' control. This is where leadership is important. It is the responsibility of
leaders to decide when to act and when to practise restraint. In the case of a conflict it is important to take
necessary preventive measures before the situation gets out of hand. Once the causes and conditions that lead
to violent clashes have fully ripened and erupted, it is very difficult to control them and restore peace.
Violence undoubtedly breeds more violence. If we instinctively retaliate when violence is done to us,
what can we expect other than that our opponent to also feel justified retaliating. This is how violence
escalates.
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Pro Sports are homophobic
Pro Sports and society still infused with anti-gay language
Hudson Taylor, and executive director of Athlete Ally, January 2014, Pro Sports, Still
Homophobic in 2014, http://southfloridagaynews.com/Guest-Columnsts/pro-sports-still-momophobicin-2014.html
Speculation of homosexuality is still perceived as such a threat that Rodgers, who makes an estimated
$6 million a year in endorsements, felt the need to characterize the rumors as "crazy" and his radio cohost, in an awkward, fumbling moment, expressed sadness that the rumors were started in an "attempt
to make you look bad." And according to Kluwe, his vocal support of marriage equality was so
intolerable to Vikings assistant coach Mike Priefer, that the coach once said in a team meeting: "We
should round up all the gays, send them to an island, and then nuke it until it glows." (Priefer issued a
statement denying Kluwe's allegations and saying he does not tolerate "discrimination of any type.")
How are young sports fans hearing these messages? If you want to insult someone, the most surefire
way is still to use the anti-gay F word. In fact, 85% of youth hear "gay" used as a slur on a regular basis
and 80% of LGBT youth experience harassment and are five times more likely than their straight peers to
attempt suicide.
Homophobia in society causes mental health problems, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts
Science Daily, science and research news, February 2, 2011, ¶ Physiological Impacts of
Homophobia¶ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110202114957.htm
The study examined the link between living in a homophobic environment and 'internalized homophobia,' e.g., feeling
negatively about oneself because of one's sexual identity as LGB.¶ Individuals who experienced more
LGB-related stress -- arguments about sexual identity, bullying or discrimination -- had higher internalized homophobia
and showed increased production of the stress hormone cortisol compared to peers in more positive environments.¶
What's more, LGB youth who showed more internalized homophobia and abnormal cortisol activity also experienced increased
symptoms of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts. "This study is among the first to clearly link the experience of
homophobia with abnormal cortisol activity," says Benibgui.¶ Benibgui says abnormal cortisol activity in LGB youth, combined with the vicious
cycle of stress, could be further influenced by a complex set of biological, psychological and social factors. "This
study shows a clear
relation between abnormal cortisol levels and environmental stressors related to homophobia," he says.
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Pro Sports Sexist
Sports has a sexism problem
Cate Matthews, The Huffington Post, July 26, 2014, http://readersupportednews.org/newssection2/318-66/24981-focus-keith-olbermann-delivers-powerful-speech-about-sexism-in-sports
Sports has a sexism problem, ESPN2 host Keith Olbermann argued in this powerful segment from his
eponymous program, and it's self-perpetuating. He began by listing instances where women in sports
have been targeted by sexist comments. The list is long, rapid-fire, and only scratches the surface.
"By some tiny amount each one of those things lowers the level of basic human respect for women in
sports. And sooner or later, there are so many tiny amounts that the level of basic human respect is
gone altogether," he says, his gaze trained on the camera and his audience. "Eventually after all the bwords and ho comments and penis remarks and nudity demands and waitress jokes, the most powerful
national sports league in the world can then get away with suspending a wife-beater for just two
games."
Sexism leads to a laundry list of negative consequences in women and girls
[email protected] [ is a provincial project launched in 2007 led by the Ontario Teachers’ Federation (OTF)
and the Centre ontarien de prévention des agressions (COPA). Works towards safe and healthy school
environment] 2013¶ Impact and Indicators of Sexism¶
http://www.safeatschool.ca/index.php?q=plm/equity-and-inclusion/understanding-sexism-racism-andhomophobia/sexism-and-violence/impact-and-indicators
Sexist assumptions about women and men, about femininity and masculinity, and about relationships
between men and women are often internalized by girls and boys. These notions may be reinforced by
unequal conditions in schools and society, impeding women’s and girls’ social, economic and cultural
participation and opportunities, including the possibility of unequal and abusive personal and
professional relationships with men (including sexual assault, sexual harassment, and violence and control within intimate
relationships).¶ These experiences lead to a host of negative consequences for the mental and physical
health and well-being of women and girls. In schools, young women and girls who are targets of sexism and sexist violence may
lose self-esteem and feel ashamed and unsure of themselves. They may feel powerless, afraid and angry, yet may internalize the anger having
been taught that the emotion is unfeminine.¶ These
painful and confusing feelings may lead to a range of indicators
that young women are in difficulty. Internalized anger may lead to depression and other mental health
problems, and to self-destructive behaviours such as eating disorders, drug and alcohol abuse and selfharm. Teachers may notice that some young women are quieter in class, that they are hesitant to share their opinions, to express themselves,
or to speak out in class, especially in mixed-gender situations. They may hold back and be reluctant to participate in school activities. Early
experiences of sexism and sexist violence may lead to a cycle of violence, as women and girls learn to undervalue themselves and their worth.
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Pro Sports promotes drug abuse
Pro Sports sets a model of drug abuse that has spread to young adults and youth
David A Baron, Department of Psychiatry, Temple University College of Medicine, et
al, Jun 2007 David M Martin, Department of Research and Development, JMJ Technologies, Inc., 1,3
And Samir Abol Magd4Drug Addiction Prevention and Management Unit, Cairo University, World
Psychiatry.; 6(2): 118–123, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219897/
Doping is now a global problem that follows international sporting events worldwide. International
sports federations, led by the International Olympic Committee, have for the past half century
attempted to stop the spread of this problem, with little effect. It was expected that, with educational
programs, testing, and supportive medical treatment, this substance-abusing behavior would decrease.
Unfortunately, this has not been the case. In fact, new, more powerful and undetectable doping
techniques and substances are now abused by professional athletes, while sophisticated networks of
distribution have developed. Professional athletes are often the role models of adolescent and young
adult populations, who often mimic their behaviors, including the abuse of drugs. This review of doping
within international sports is to inform the international psychiatric community and addiction treatment
professionals of the historical basis of doping in sport and its spread to vulnerable athletic and nonathletic populations.
Pro Sports and the media’s coverage of sports encourage young people to abuse
substances
David A Baron, Department of Psychiatry, Temple University College of Medicine, et
al, Jun 2007 David M Martin, Department of Research and Development, JMJ Technologies, Inc., 1,3
And Samir Abol Magd4Drug Addiction Prevention and Management Unit, Cairo University, World
Psychiatry.; 6(2): 118–123, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2219897/
Modern sports and the media's misplaced fixation on fame, fortune and winning at all costs have
unintentionally created a growing market for doping substances. These substances, once only abused by
elite athletes, are clearly spreading into our schools and health clubs worldwide. They are being
accepted by a whole new generation of young customers who see reports daily in the newspapers of
sports icons accused of abusing drugs only to continue playing, breaking records and claiming fortunes.
These same performance-enhancing drugs are also abused by adolescents and weekend athletes and
non-athletes who have wider behavioral and health risk problems. In addition, these drugs are now
being abused by male and female adolescents for cosmetic purposes in an attempt to achieve the "cut"
and sexy look promoted by the media.
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West Coast Publishing
Sept-Oct 2014 Public Forum Sports Subsidies and Communities
Page 46
Drug Abuse is Harmful
Addiction is a disease that requires long-term treatment
National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide,” Accessed 10-7-2010,
http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT.pdf
Because drug abuse and addiction have so many dimensions and disrupt so many aspects of an individual’s life,
treatment is not simple. Effective treatment programs typically incorporate many components, each directed to a
particular aspect of the illness and its consequences. Addiction treatment must help the individual stop using
drugs, maintain a drug-free lifestyle, and achieve productive functioning in the family, at work, and in society.
Because addiction is a disease, people cannot simply stop using drugs for a few days and be cured. Most patients
require long-term or repeated episodes of care to achieve the ultimate goal of sustained abstinence and recovery
of their lives.
Drug abuse is responsible for half of all violent and property crimes
John P. Walters, executive vice president of Hudson Institute and was director of the Office
of National Drug Control Policy from 2001 to 2009 under President George W. Bush, April 25, 2009,
“Drugs: To Legalize or Not,” Wall Street Journal, Accessed 10-10-2010,
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124061336043754551.html
The violence of traffickers, which has harmed tens of thousands, is dwarfed by the millions harmed by
another violence, that done daily by those in our own communities under the influence of drugs.
Roughly 80% of child abuse and neglect cases are tied to the use and abuse of drugs. It is not that drug
abuse causes all crime and violence, it just makes it much worse by impairing judgment, weakening
impulse control and at some levels of pathology, with some drugs, causing paranoia and psychosis. Well
more than 50% of those arrested today for violent and property crimes test positive for illegal drug use
when arrested. Legalized access to drugs would increase drug-related suffering dramatically.
Drug abuse increases crime
Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy, April 2008 , “Alcohol and Other Drug
Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority,”
http://www1.spa.american.edu/justice/documents/2434.pdf,
Accessed 10-8-2010
Drug users commit a disproportionate amount of all types of crime, not just drug possession offenses
(Marlowe, 2002). 80% of state and federal inmates have been incarcerated for alcohol or drug-related
offenses, intoxicated at the time of their offense, committed the offense to support their addiction, or
had a history of alcohol abuse or dependence and/or illegal drug use (CASA, 1998).
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Page 47
Public Subsidies for Pro Support Undemocratic
Public Subsidies are done undemocratically and undermine liberal democracy
Timothy Kellison, Florida State University, Michael Mondello, University of South
Florida, May 2013, http://www.nassm.com/files/conf_abstracts/2013-039.pdf
In a representative democracy, delegates are selected to act on behalf of their constituents. In this form
of democracy, representatives are encouraged, and expected, to consider the best interests of all of
their citizens (Magleby, 1984). Conversely, direct democracy provides citizens with the opportunity to
participate directly in the legislative process. Referenda and initiatives are forms of direct democracy
because they allow citizens to vote directly on legislation, even in democracies that are otherwise
structured on the representative model. In theory, the outcome of the referendum vote is final and
binding. However, on multiple occasions, local governments in the US have utilized mechanisms to
allocate public funding toward sport facility projects after voters rejected such propositions. In Brown
and Paul’s (2002) examination of failed professional sport facility referenda from 1984 to 2000 (N = 16),
the authors found local governments nevertheless provided facility subsidies in one quarter of all cases.
Moreover, officials in other cities have circumvented direct democracyHlike procedures altogether.
Only five public votes (four of which expressed approval) have occurred in cities subsidizing stadium
projects from 2005 to 2012. By contrast, a new trend in stadium finance is the prevalence of the no
vote subsidy: since 2005, 24 stadium projects have been allocated over $8.5 billion of public funds
without any form of voter approval. The no vote subsidy includes any instance in which a stadium (or
more broadly, any project) receives public financing without the direct approval of voters, and it can
occur in one of two ways: (1) no vote is held or, perhaps more egregious, (2) a proposal has been
rejected by voters but the subsidy occurs anyway. It seems counterintuitive for elected officials to
enact policies that are unreflective of popular sentiment. Not only could it provoke ill feelings from the
electorate, but it could erode a citizen’s appreciation of the democratic process. In some cases,
governmental institutions grant subsidies without holding a public vote. As has been argued in the past,
circumventing the directly democratic process increases the likelihood of securing public financing for a
stadium initiative, but at the expense of organizational legitimacy (Fort, 1997; Kellison & Mondello,
2012). In other cases, public financing is secured despite a past referendum (or referenda) failure. Such
actions may undermine the will of the people philosophy, a fundamental aspect of a liberal democracy.
Therefore, it is necessary to understand how decision makers reconcile their actions with the prevailing
views of the public regarding both particular decisions and more general understandings of the
democratic process.
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Democracy is Good
Democracies provide space for diverse groups to work out their differences, stemming
political violence
R.J. Rummel, professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, 1991, "The
Democratic Peace: A New Idea?" accessed 8/30/2013,
http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/POLSYS.ART.HTM#1
Democratically free people are spontaneous, diverse, pluralistic. They have many, often opposing,
interests pushing them one way or another. They belong to independent and overlapping occupational,
religious, recreational, and political subgroups, each involving its own interests; and then they are
moved by the separate and even antagonistic desires of different age, sex, ethnic, racial, and regional strata. Freedom thus
creates a social field in which social forces point in many different directions, and in which individual interests, the engine of social behavior, are
often cross-pressured. Like the Catholic political conservative who cannot decide whether to vote for the Episcopalian, Republican conservative,
or the Catholic welfare democrat, many within a free society must balance often contradictory wants. This means that those very strong
interests that drive the individual in one direction to the exclusion of all else, even at the risk of violence, do not develop easily. And, if such
interests do develop, they are usually shared by relatively few individuals. That is, the
normal working of a democratically free
society in all its diversity is to restrain the growth across the community of that consuming singleness of
view and purpose that leads, if frustrated, to wide-scale social and political violence.
Democratic governments keep their commitments more often, reducing international
conflict
James Lee Ray, professor of political science at Vanderbilt University, 1998, "Does Democracy Cause
Peace?" accessed 8/29/2013, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ray.htm
An additional factor, most likely to be relevant when democratic disputants are clearly unequal in
tangible military capabilities, is the greater ability of democratic states to make credible commitments
(Fearon 1994), because they are visibly faced with greater "audience costs" if they back down (see also Eyerman & Hart 1996). In other words,
the processes leading to wars between unequal states are distinct from those leading to wars between equal states. For example, fear of failure
(a lost war) may be more likely to have a constraining effect on the leaders of states roughly equivalent in capabilities (Bueno de Mesquita &
Siverson, unpublished data). However, if the capabilities of the disputing democratic states are highly disparate, intangible elements may play a
particularly important role in the decisionmaking processes on both sides of the dispute (Bueno de Mesquita et al 1997). The
superior
ability of democratic states to make credible commitments or to demonstrate resolve may help unequal,
democratic states avoid the confusion or uncertainty that makes disputes involving unequal,
undemocratic states more likely to escalate to war.
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