Let’s go over these now. 1) What does the word germinate mean? 2) Describe the process of germination using the words “embryo” and “dormant”. 3) What are the four main conditions a seed needs to germinate? 4) Does a seed necessarily need soil to germinate? Explain. 5) Why do you think a seed will only germinate when it’s within a particular temperature range? 6) If we soaked some lima beans, placed them in a dark cabinet and left them there, would they germinate? Why or why not? Where is the actual plant embryo? If we let any of our lima beans germinate in the dark, what do you think would eventually happen to the cotyledons? How is a seed like an egg? Seed coat Cotyledon (stored food) Look at page 87 in your book. Epicotyl (young leaves) Radicle (root tip) Roots Vascular leaves Stem Cotyledon (‘seed leaf’) 1) Angiosperm or Gymnosperm? Seed coat Epicotyl (young leaves) Cotyledon (stored food) Radicle (root tip) Take a look at p. 88 – 89 in your book. Try to come up with a list of characteristics of gymnosperms. Conifers, gingkoes and cycads First plants to have seeds plant embryo with food surrounded by protective covering Seeds develop inside cones Pollen with sperm transported by wind Have vascular tissue Which is the most common? Ginkgo Cycad Conifer Female contains egg Male contains sperm (pollen) Both can often be found on the same plant. Pine Long, thin, needles in bundles of 2 to 5 Spruce Short, sharp, spiky needles growing right out of the branch Arborvitae Scaly texture; Not really “needles” Douglas Fir Flat needles; Cones with “tails” The largest single tree in the world Flowering plants Vascular tissue Most diverse and wide-spread group (235,000 species) First to have flowers, which are reproductive organs Flowers use nectar to attract insects who carry pollen. Seeds develop in fruit (can be dispersed by animals) What do all these things have in common?