Strain of Changing Disciplinary
 Child care and guidance practices have
changed through the years
 Parents who depend on child care want to
be assured that their children will receive
proper guidance
Early Pioneers
 John Comenius (1592-1670)
 The desire to learn can be excited by teachers, if they are gentle and persuasive
and do not alienate their pupils from them by roughness.
 Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
 Teachers need to look first at the system if there are behavioral problems.
 Robert Owen (1771–1858)
 Punishment is never required, and should be avoided as much as giving poison
in their food.
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Early Pioneers
 Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)
 Father of Kindergarten
 The teacher should see the natural impulses of the child not as a
tendency toward evil but as the source and motivation for human
development that with guidance leads to character in the adult.
 Maria Montessori (1870–1952)
 Children educate themselves through absorption in meaningful tasks.
In this process they learn both self-discipline and responsible
decision making.
 John Dewey (1859–1952)
 Out of the occupation, out of doing things that are to produce results,
and out of doing these things in a social and cooperative way, there is
born a discipline of its own kind and type.
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Mid-20 -Century
 Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
 Constructivism
 The modern ideal is cooperation—respect for the
individual and for general opinion as elaborated in free
 Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
 Healthy development of the child results in an adult
ability for interconnectedness with social groups, to the
benefit of both society and the individual.
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Mid-20 -Century
 Self Psychologists (1960s-1970s)
 The developing self is the dynamic in human behavior.
Schools must address not just academics, but also the selfconcepts of learners.
 Rudolph Dreikurs (1897-1972)
 Teachers need to be leaders, not bosses. When their attempts
to achieve social acceptance fail, children show antisocial
behavior for a purpose, to achieve any of four mistaken goals.
 Haim Ginott (1922-1973)
 The “psychology of acceptance” means that the teacher’s task
is to build and maintain positive relations with each child.
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Discipline Trends in the 1980s
 Emphasis on academic programming with younger
children lent itself to tightly controlled classrooms
 Obedience-based disciplines
 Effects on children: humiliation, stigmatism, ‘winners’ and ‘losers’
 Effects on teachers: reduced ability to use professional judgement
 Effects on parents: discourages involvement in school if parent disagrees with
 Keeping guidance alive:
 Early childhood education
 Conflict resolution movement
 Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)
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Guidance Practice Today
 Guidance means teaching children to learn from
their mistakes, rather than punishing children for
making mistakes.
 A guidance approach teaches children democratic
life skills—the skills individuals need to function as
productive citizens and healthy individuals.
Democratic life skills include the ability to:
 see oneself as a worthy individual and capable member of the group.
 express strong emotions in nonhurting ways.
 make decisions ethically and intelligently.
 work cooperatively in groups to recognize and resolve common problems.
 be understanding of human qualities and characteristics in others.
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Parent-Teacher Relations
 Positive parent-teacher relations contribute at a
fundamental level to the success of the guidance
 Froebel—mothers should take leadership in organizing kindergartens
 Montessori—teachers as model for children and parents alike
 Child study movement—nursery schools administered by parents
 Head Start—home visits, classroom volunteering
 Public schools—individual relationships between teachers and
parents for those with older children, ECFE for those with younger
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Social Constructivist View
 Alfred Adler’s analysis of behavior.
 Human beings are capable of working
cooperatively, living together
peacefully, striving for selfimprovement and self-fulfillment, and
contributing to the common welfare of
the community
Effective Interpersonal Skills
 Carl Rogers’ theory of personality is based on
humane and ethical treatment of persons
 To reach full potential, human beings must have
positive regard from others that eventually leads to
the development of positive self-regard
 Robert Carkhuff and George Gazda refined Rogers’
theories into practical, hands-on techniques
beneficial to therapists and educators
Predetermined Stages of
Mental Growth
 Jean Piaget’s theory
 Children’s mental development proceeds in
distinct stages qualitatively different from the
thinking of adults
 Like John Dewey and Maria Montessori, Piaget
believed that early learning experiences have
tremendous impact on children’s long-term
cognitive development
Zone of Proximal Development
 Identified by Lev Vygotsky
 Believed adults play an important role
in children’s development and
 Scaffolding
Constructivists hold
the Piagetian view that…
 Children construct their own learning
from innate cognitive structures and
external experiences
Maturationists believe…
 Internal predispositions
 Physiological characteristics are
inherited traits
 Essential psychological makeup of a
human being is inborn
Behaviorists believe…
Environment is the primary
determinant of human behavior
Objectively observable behavior
constitutes the essential
psychological makeup of a human
Concept of Citizenship
Being cooperative
Having sense of fair play
Respecting rights of others
 Initiative and self-reliance
 self-starter, lifelong learner, creative problem-solver
 Responsible work habits
 established habits of promptness, effort, and pride
 Sense of loyalty
 recognizes that sometimes one’s own immediate
interests and desires may need to be pushed aside
for the good of the community
 Autocracy
 control by a single person having unlimited power
 Anarchy
 absence of any form of control
 chaos and disorder
 Democracy
 principles of social equality and respect for the
individual within a cohesive community
Persistence and Patience
 A gentle rippling stream
etches deep patterns in
solid rock
 Pounding on rocks with
a sledge hammer
changes the shape of
rocks quickly, but causes
a lot of damage in the
Persistence and patience
are key to success in
positive guidance!