Dolley Madison By: Kendall Reed S Before the White House S -Originally Dolley Paine, she grew up as a Quaker. S -First married to a lawyer, John Todd, and had two sons. S -She was left a widow when a yellow fever epidemic took both her husband and her youngest son. She overcame the sickness. S -A former tenant, Aaron Burr, introduced Dolley to Madison at a social function in Philadelphia. S -Known as lively and extroverted, Dolley loved to host dinner parties and entertain guests. S -James and Dolley moved to Washington when Jefferson appointed him Secretary of State. While Under the Public Eye S -Her outgoing demeanor complimented Madison’s reserved personality when he was elected president in 1808. S -Dolley hosted the first Inaugural Ball. S -Unusual for women at her time, she helped her husband in making political decisions. S -The first First Lady to involve herself in a public project, she helped found a Washington DC orphanage for girls. S -It’s likely her relationship with the public (a first that set the standard for first ladies after her) was a large reason Madison was reelected in 1812. S -By forging friendships with spouses of important political figures, she was a large help to gaining support for her husband within the government. S -Before the British burned the White House down, Dolley’s famous for insisting she stay at the house until certain important items were transported out, such as George Washington’s portrait. After Madison S -After Madison’s death, Dolley’s son’s spending left her impoverished. S -She was awarded and honorary seat in Congress. S -Samuel Morse also gave Dolley the honor of being the first private citizen to transmit a message via telegraph. S -Before her death, later first ladies relied on her advice on how to handle their public role. S -Legend has it that the term “First Lady” was coined in President Zachary Taylor’s eulogy for Dolley. Dolley Madison set the standard for later First Ladies, proved just how important a relationship with the public is, and proved women could think out politics just as well as men. The Oregon Trail S Was first mapped by Lewis and Clark in 1804-1806 S Stretched for 2,000 miles across 5 present-day states S Was jointly owned by the US and Britain Who Used The Trail? S Missionaries wishing to convert Native Americans to Christianity (they were often killed) S Fur trappers and hunters S Pioneers emigrating from towns on the Missouri River The Great Migration/The California Gold Rush S In 1843, almost 1,000 settlers left for Oregon. Nearly all survived. S During the Gold Rush of 1849, almost two-thirds of the male population died from cholera S The Santa Fe Trail By : Jessica Solomon, Alex Bearse, and Katie Black S Reasons for Westward Movement S Louisiana Purchase S S S S Needed More Space S Many people were in debt and wanted to start over Industrialization of the Northeast S S People began to believe it was their religious duty to expand west. Panic of 1837 S S The country’s population was growing and it’s size needed to as well. Manifest Destiny S S This gave people new lands to explore and colonize. Farmers needed to make a living somehow and it was said there was fertile soil out west Opportunities for Trade S Traders hoped for opportunities to trade with Asia The Trail S Ran 780 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico S Was traveled mostly by traders hoping for better trade with Asia S Wagons left in the spring and traveled alone 150 miles, later joined together at Council Grove, Kansas in fear of Native Americans S Their goal- reach New Mexico first S After days of trading- loaded wagons, returned to U.S S Traders established first American presence in New Mexico and Arizona By Erin Ward, Sarah Newton & Lydia D’Amato Cause S The U.S. wanted to expand west, Manifest Destiny. S Americans had moved into lands not yet owned by U.S. (Texas territory). S Mexican Government is unstable. S Rumors of Britain possibly attempting to gain territory in western North America. CourseCourse Polk sends John Slidell to Mexico to buy California and New Mexico for $25 million, but he is rejected Polk then sends General Zachary Taylor and his troops to the Rio Grande Parades (Mexico’s new dictator) orders an attack on Taylor on April 24, 1846 On May 9th, 1846, Polk gets news of attack on Taylor’s troops and brings this to congress asking to declare war on Mexico US wins battles of Palo Alto (May 8) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9) (Even though the Mexican troops were larger and better trained, US still beat them. The war contained many battles within it War concludes with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which was signed on February 2, 1848 by Nicholas Trist. The US paid $15 million for Mexican Cession. Effects S Mexican Cession became the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. S U.S. & Mexican border was finally established along Rio Grande. S President Santa Anna lost power in Mexico. S General Zachary Taylor won the Presidency in 1848. S Relations between the United States and Mexico remained tense. S Different opinions on slavery between North and South become more prominent. California Gold Rush 1848-1852 “The whole country resounds with the sordid cry of gold, GOLD, GOLD!” S The Rush Begins S January 1848, James Marshall, an American carpenter working in the California Sierra Nevada mountains, discovered gold at Sutter’s mill. S Among the so-called forty-niners, (the prospectors who flocked to California in 1849 in the gold rush), were people from Asia, Impact of the Gold. S San Francisco became a “pandemonium city”. S San Fran’s population exploded from only 1,000 in 1848 to 35,000 in 1850. S Many people from all over the country came to settle in California to prosper from the gold S Many of the people who moved west were unlawful, Gold Rush Brings Diversity -By 1849, California’s population exceeded 100,000. -Chinese were the largest group to come overseas to California. -Many slaves were becoming rich in California. William Henry Harrison February 9, 1773- April 4, 1841 Birthplace: Virginia By: Troy Moffat Block: 3 S Battle of Tippecanoe S Indian resistance against U.S. expansion was growing. S Harrison schedules meeting with tribal leader Tecumseh to negotiate peace in 1810 S Tecumseh says Fort Wayne Treaty is illegitimate but Harrison refuses to back down S In 1811 Harrison and his troops move North to try and intimidate Tecumseh and the Shawnees into peace S Tecumseh launches a surprise attack on Harrison’s troops at Prophetstown next to the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers S Harrison defeats Tecumseh and his forces S Harrison becomes a war hero and the battle becomes famous. Presidency and Accomplishments S Defeated in 1936 by Martin Van Buren but won in 1940 Presidential Election S 9th S S S S S S Joined army at age 18 after fathers death S Elected to Congress as delegate in 1799 at age 26 Shortest presidency at 32 days S Died of pneumonia complications Became Governor of Indiana Territory in1801 S Last President born before the Declaration of Independence Lead the army in the War of 1812 but resigned before it was over S Elected to House of Representatives to finish the term of John McLean in 1816 S Elected to Ohio State Senate in 1819 President Longest inaugural speech of any president to this day One of major goals as president was to reinstall the National Bank Who’s who in early 1800’s Texas and Mexico By: Matt Woodward, Pat Crogan, and Josh Pooler S Stone Cold Steve Austin Led the first Americans into the fertile area along the Brazos river in 1821. 12 years later he found himself in a Mexican prison. When released, he spoke of the impending crisis between Texas and Mexico. Awesome moustache General Santa Anna Started as a Spaniard who was fighting against the Mexicans during the war of Mexican Independence. Switched to fight for Mexico. Became the first Mexican president when Mexico won independence. Led the Mexicans against the Texans at the Alamo. He was an unstable ruler. Sam Houston Fought General Santa Anna at the battle of San Jacinto. The Texan troops charged into the battle with the famous cries of “Remember the Alamo!” His troops killed 630 Mexicans in 18 minutes and then captured Santa Anna. This battle ended the Texas revolution. Houston later became the President of the Republic of Texas. Davy Crockett 19th Century American folk hero, a great frontiersman, a devote soldier, and respected congressmen who considered running for president of the united states. S Myths! S He is exactly how Disney portrayed him and he was shown in his song WRONG! But his song was a top 20 hit four times! S He stayed on the frontier because he liked it WRONG! He stayed there because it was easier than living with his huge family. So he ran away from his wife and children Myths! S David Crockett was a FIGHTER! WRONG AGAIN! He was terrified of going to battle, and often he sent people to fight his battles for him! He had the worst absentee record as a congressman in the history of America! S Davy died fighting for Texas honorably! Davy’s claim to fame! S Elected to Tennessee State Legislature in 1821 S Five years later (1826) he was elected to the United States House of Representatives S Opposed Andrew Jackson’s beliefs and actions, especially the Indian Removal Act S In congress, he supported the rights of squatters (people banned from buying land in the west without already owning property) S He died in the Battle of the Alamo fighting in the Texas Revolution on March 6, 1836 at the James K. Polk (1844-1849) THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY A Glorious Burden S He beat Henry Clay, now what? ??? “Polk the Purposeful” THE FOUR MAIN GOALS CHECKLIST A lower tariff Restore the independent treasury Acquisition of California Settle the Oregon dispute without violence. We want CALIFORNIA! S Population in California was basically Spanish- Americans and Native-Americans S Polk wanted to buy California (The Bear Flag Republic) but relations were on edge because of the Texas Annexation S There was a rumor floating around that Britain was going to buy California so Polk sent John Sidell and offered 25 million HE WAS REJECTED! Fine then its WAR! S On January 13, 1846 Polk sent troops under General Zachary Taylor(hint hint next president) S On May 9, 1846 Polk asked Congress to declare war because of unpaid claims and rejection of the deal S What really happened was American troops were attacked by the Mexicans so they The Mexican -American War Let’s Make PEACE with WAR S Polk didn’t really want to but they went to war anyways We beat them… And thus the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed by Nicholas P. Trist on February It’s all about the land! 2, 1848 What about the goals??? A lower tariff= Walker Tariff of 1846 Restore the independent treasury=Independent Treasury Act of 1846 Acquisition of California DONE. Settle the Oregon dispute without violence. Ehhh close enough GOALS COMPLETE! Championship! Mormon Migration EmmaLynn Wadsworth and Kelsey Harnden S The Basics S Mormon name: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints S Joseph Smith translated the Book of Mormon S Founded: April 6 1830 Fayette New York S Because of persecution, the Mormon are driven to Nauvoo, Illinois Nauvoo S The Mormon church quickly grew and Nauvoo became the largest city in the state of Illinois S Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were jailed, and later brutally martyred on 27th of June, 1844. Trek westward S Governor Boggs of Illinois issued an Exterminating order, which means that the Mormons would either have to relocate or be slaughtered. The Latter day Saints left their beautiful city in February of 1846. S With the Leadership of Brigham Young the Mormons forced their way westward to a land where they could find peace. Many died along the way. Salt Lake S Many more Mormons would gather in the Salt Lake Valley and the surrounding areas. S Over 70,000 saints would gather in the Valley by 1861. They helped settle the surrounding areas of the west. S There are over 13 million Mormons today and it has become the fastest growing religion in the world with Thomas S. Monson at its’ head. Zach Sousa Darin Bellissimo Josh Dyer Pre-War Tension 1810 Macon’s Bill No. 2 : U.S. passes law saying they can trade with all the world, but if Britain and France repeal their commercial restrictions, we can restrain from trading with them. Madison Declares Boycotts for British Goods 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe S1812 Lets Fight! U.S. Declares War on Britain 1814 Madison Reelected President America Invades Canada (FAIL) 1813 Battle of Plattsburgh British Burn Washington Battle of Horshoe Bend Treaty of Ghent 1815 Hartford Convention Battle of New Orleans Battle of Thames Battle of Lake Erie Lets Make A Deal S1818 Rush-Bagot – U.S. And Britain agreed to demilitarize the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain. Each would only be allowed one military vessel as well as one cannon. Boundary of 49th Parallel Set War... What Is It Good For? S The War of 1812 took place because the U.S. Desired to expand their territory northwest. The British supported American Indian tribes that were against American expansion. Also, the U.S. Was restricted in trade due to the war between France And Britain. Thirdly, American merchant sailors were impressed into the Royal Navy. S The United States ultimately got what they wanted from the war. The 49th parallel was established, and American land stretched as far as lake Erie. They were unsuccessful in their attempts to gain Canadian lands however. Texas War for Independence Bonnie Zion Michaela Mann Molly Gilson S Texas fights for independence ;D S The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was a military conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state. S The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836. Come to Texas!!1! S In 1830, Mexico sealed its borders and put a heavy tax on American goods. S Lacked troops by the borders. S Texan population doubled within 4 years. S Mexican politics became unstable. ‘Remember the Alamo!’ S Texas wanted self government for large population. S Texans didn’t listen to Mexican rules, so in 1835, Texans attacked. S Treaty of Velasco to set texans free. Battle of Baltimore By: Traci Perry, Bridgette Dargelis and Katie Couto S S British Admiral Cochrane attacked Baltimore Harbor, after advancing on Washington, by land and by sea. S British Naval forces turned all their attention to Fort McHenry but they did no significant damage. S After failing to capture the city, the British withdrew from Chesapeake Bay. S This was the last battle of the War of 1812. Francis Scott Key S Watched the battle from afar and was inspired to write the words of “The Star Spangled Banner”. S It was soon set tune to an old English tavern refrain and quickly attained popularity.