Mesopotamia

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Copyright © Clara Kim 2007. All rights reserved.
Why River Valleys?
• 1. Offered rich soils for
agriculture
• 2. Tended to be located in
places that could offer
protection from nomadic
invaders
Sumerians
Political
Power of the Priests
• Sumer’s earliest
governments were
controlled by temple priests
– Farmers believed they
needed blessings for
success of their crops
– Priests were the middle
man for the Gods
– Priests demanded portion
of farmer crops as tax
Political
• Later followed
Hereditary rulers:
when the power is
passed down to
family members
Sargon
Economy
• Metal tools and weapons
(bronze, iron)
• Increasing agricultural
surplus (better tools, plows,
irrigation)
• Increasing trade along
rivers – traded with Egypt
• Development of the world’s
first cities
• Specialization of labor
Typical Sumerian
jobs included:
pottery
textiles
scribe
accountant
dairy farmer
woodworking
leather crafts
brick making
stone cutting
mason
baker
priest
Sumerian dairy farm
With urbanization came the need for
more people to do different jobs. There
was also a need for more laws and
regulations.
Urbanization: People living in cities.
7
Religion
• Polytheistic: Belief in
Many Gods (3,000!!!)
• Gods could be angered
at any moment and to
keep them happy
Sumerians:
– Built impressive
ziggurats or temples to
sacrifice food, wine and
animals
– Souls of the dead
wandered in the land of
no return
MORE
ZIGGURATS!!!
Sumerian Society
Kings and Priests
Wealthy merchants
Ordinary Sumerian people
Slaves
Women
• Could hold property
• Join lower ranks of
priesthood
• There were few women
scribes
– Scholars think that girls
were not allowed to
attend schools
Intellectual
Epic of Gilgamesh
• Myths and
legends recorded
in this long poem
• One of the
earliest works of
literature in the
world
Gilgamesh was a real man, ruling in
the city-state of Uruk. The Epic is a
tale about his adventures with his
half-brother Ekindu. He searches
for answers from the gods about
the meaning of life and death.
Gilgamesh
“Gilgamesh, whither
are you wandering?
Life, which you look
for, you will never
find.
For when the gods
created man, they
let
Death be his share,
and withheld life
In their own hands”
Achievements
Science and Technology
• Invented the wheel, the
sail, the plow
• First to use bronze.
• Developed system of
writing
• Built irrigation systems,
buildings using clay
bricks, surveyed
flooded fields.
The Fertile Crescent
• Arc of land
between the
Persian Gulf
and the
Mediterranean
Sea in
Southwest Asia
One land…Two Rivers
• Mesopotamia means =
“land between the rivers”
– Tigris River and
Euphrates River
• Both rivers flooded once
a year and left thick bed
of silt.
– Silt: rich, new soil
farmers could plant
and harvest enormous
quantities of wheat
and barley
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