The Victorian Period 1832-1901 - Phoenix Union High School District

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The Victorian Period
1832-1901
Important Events and Inventions
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1844- first telegraph sent
1845- Irish potato famine
1859- Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of the Species
1861- U.S. Civil War begins
1869- Suez canal opens
1874- Alexander Bell invents telephone
1879- Edison invents the light bulb
1893- Ford makes first automobile
1893- New Zealand is first country to grant women suffrage
1895- Marconi invents first radio
1896- first modern Olympic games
1900- Sigmund Freud publishes dream interpretations
The Era of Rapid Change
During Queen Victoria’s reign, England transformed
from
 Horse
drawn carriages to
cars
 From rule by aristocrats to
votes for every man
 From farms to factories
 From confidence in progress
to increased doubt
Growth and Change
“The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
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The British Empire included areas around the globe:
Africa, India, Ireland, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Australia and
Canada
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England was at
the height of its
power
Dominated the
world politically
Modern Monarchy: Queen Victoria
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Became queen at age 18
Married her cousin, Prince Albert
Ruled for over 63 years
Hallmarks of her reign:
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Proper behavior
Hard work and duty
Support of Imperialism
Changed the role of royalty by
yielding control to the Prime Minister
After the death of her husband in
1861she withdrew from politics and went into seclusion for
the rest of her life.
Progress, Problems, and Reforms
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Middle class Victorians
enjoyed displaying their
wealth in their dress, homes,
furniture, etc.
Refined manners was of the
utmost importance
Many were against these
displays of materialism
Progress, Problems and Reforms Cont.
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Conditions for the poor
grew worse
 16
hour work days
 5 year olds worked in
coal mines and in
factories
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Potato blight/ famine
caused 2 mill. Irish to
emigrate to England’s
over-crowded slums
Reform and Uncertainty
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Parliament abolished
slavery
Restricted child labor
Public schools established
(1867) Working-class men
given the right to vote
Modern science threatened
cherished beliefs
 Charles
Darwin’s publication
and theory
Victorian Literature
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Early Victorian poets focused on “poetic” subjects
At the time, works by writers such as Dickens, Emily
and Charlotte Bronte, and George Eliot was seen as
light entertainment, not serious literature
Middle-class citizens wanted stories to have more
realism.
 Captures
elements of every day life
 Exposes social problems and pretentions
 Psychological realism
Victorian Novels
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Novels were very long – divided into three books
Novels were usually published serially in magazines
several chapters at a time
 Readers
might have to wait 2 years to find out how a
story ended
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Introduction of Penny
Dreadful: shocking
serial stories with each
section costing a penny
Victorian Viewpoints
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Victorians read on all subjects
They were curious about
everything and would read
non-fiction articles that only
specialists might read today
Uncertainty about religion,
science, imperialism, and
materialism permeated
literature
Pessimistic tone to many works
New Writing Styles
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Naturalism
an off-shoot of Realism
 Saw the universe as an uncaring force
 Focused on the harsh details of industrialized
life
 No humor or happy ending
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Late Victorians began avoiding serious
works
Turned to adventure tales by Robert Louis
Stevenson, H.G. Wells, and Oscar Wilde
 Children’s literature by Lewis Carroll and
Rudyard Kipling
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Important Authors and Works
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Charles Dickens – A Tale of Two Cities
Emily Bronte – Wuthering Heights
Charlotte Bronte – Jane Eyre
Rudyard Kipling – The Jungle Book
Robert Louis Stevenson- Treasure Island
Thomas Hardy – Tess of the D’Urbervilles
Lewis Carroll- Alice in Wonderland
George Eliot (Mary Evans)- Silas Marner
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle- The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
Oscar Wilde- The Picture of Dorian Gray
H.G. Wells – The Time Machine
Focus Questions
1. What one invention from this time period?
A: automobile, telegraph, radio, light bulb, and
telephone
Focus Question
2. What are two important world events from this time
period?
A: U.S. Civil War, Suez Canal, Irish potato famine,
women suffrage in New Zealand, Charles Darwin’s
publication, Prince Albert dies, English abolishment
of slavery, Victoria crowned queen, first modern
Olympics
Focus Question
3. List three facts about Queen Victoria.
A: ruled for over 63 years, became queen at 18,
married her cousin, valued manners and
imperialism, embraced constitutional law, mourned
her husband’s death for the remainder of her life
Focus Question
4. How would you describe middle-class Victorians?
A:
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focused on manners and proper behavior
displayed their wealth and materialism
avid readers and curious about everything
Deeply religious
Embraced technology and science but were upset
by what it showed them
Focus Questions
5. How would you describe lower-class Victorians?
A:
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Worked long hours in terrible conditions
Lived in over-crowded slums
Wanted to read realistic works
Men gained the right to vote
Able to attend public schools
Focus Question
6. List three facts about Victorian literature.
A:
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Long books published in serials
Naturalism – focus on industrialized life and hardships
Realism – focus on everyday life and social problems
Early Victorian writing was serious, dark, and negative
Late Victorian writing included children’s literature and
adventure stories
Focus Question
6. List three authors and their works from this time period.
A:
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Charles Dickens – A Tale of Two Cities
Emily Bronte – Wuthering Heights
Charlotte Bronte – Jane Eyre
Rudyard Kipling – The Jungle Book
Robert Louis Stevenson- Treasure Island
Thomas Hardy – Tess of the D’Urbervilles
Lewis Carroll- Alice in Wonderland
George Eliot (Mary Evans)- Silas Marner
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle- The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
Oscar Wilde- The Picture of Dorian Gray
H.G. Wells – The Time Machine
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