Unit 5 Measurements and Calculations

```Chapter 5
Measurements and Calculations
Section 5.1
Scientific Notation and Units
Key Terms
Measurement
Scientific notation
Units
English system
Metric system
International System (SI)
Volume
Liter
Milliliter
Mass
Gram
Questions
1. When writing numbers using scientific notation, numbers greater than one have _____ exponents and
numbers less than one have _____ exponents.
2. Change the following to scientific notation:
a. 8,475,000
b. 0.0000754
c. 1,000
d. 0.35724
3. Copy and complete the table below.
English unit Metric unit
Length
meter
Volume quart
Mass
pound
4. How many millimeters are in 50 cm?
5. Which is larger, a liter or a quart?
Section 5.2
Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figures
Key Terms
Significant figures
Rounding off
Questions
1. Why are all measurements uncertain?
2. What are the three types of zeros in a number? Which type is always significant? Which type is never
significant? Which type is sometimes significant?
3. Copy the following numbers, and mark each significant zero with an arrow.
a. 0.003042
b. 1.4030
c. 1000
d. 0.060
e. 50.0
f. 10.47020
g. 250.
4. How many significant figures are in each number below?
a. 0.003042
b. 1.4030
c. 1000
d. 0.060
e. 50.0
f. 10.47020
g. 250.
5. Without doing the calculation, tell how many significant figures should be in each result.
a. 3.2 + 4.17 + 12.43
b. 1.3478 – 0.02
c. 4.6 x 3.435
d. (4.2 x 10-5) x 3.74 &divide; 6.783
e. 50 – 0.00473
6. Perform the calculations, and determine the results from question 5.
7. State the number of significant figures in a measurement made with each ruler:
a.
b.
c.
Section 5.3
Problem Solving and Unit Conversions
Key Terms
Conversion factor
Equivalence statement
Dimensional analysis
Fahrenheit scale
Celsius scale
Kelvin scale (absolute)
Density
Specific gravity
Questions
1. What is an equivalence statement? How many conversion factors can be created from one
equivalence statement? Choose an equivalence statement from Table 5.7, and write all the possible
conversion factors from it.
2. Write a conversion factor or factors for these problems. Do not do the calculation.
a. 37 cm x _____ = ? in.
b. 4.2 qt x _____ = ? L
c. 2.2 kg x _____ = ? pounds
d. 3.5 mi x _____ = ? m
3. Complete the conversions for each of the problems in question 2.
4. You run a 100-yd dash in 9.8 seconds. What is your speed in miles per hour?
5. Convert the following temperatures.
a. 30. &deg;C to &deg;F
b. 72 &deg;F to K
c. 14 K to &deg;C
d. 342 K to &deg;F
6. A certain liquid has a density of 0.79 g/mL. What volume of this liquid has a mass of 15.0 g?
7. For each of the following, decide which block is more dense: the block on the left or the block on the
right, or state that it cannot be determined. Explain your answers.
a.
b.
c.
d.
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