The New Weight Management Rules in HS Wrestling

The New Weight
Management Rules in HS
Randall Wroble MD
Historical Overview
• In late 1997, 3 college
wrestlers died while
attempting to rapidly lose
excessive amounts of
weight by intense exercise
and dehydration
• That set in motion a series
of events that culminated
in the rules we discuss
Why Weight Loss?
Wrestlers lose weight to make weight
Leaner wrestlers are more effective
Weight loss is good when fat is lost but is
detrimental when carried to abusive levels
We need to make sports safe for the
• Safe weight loss
– Eliminate rapid
fluctuation in weight
– Focus the sport on
competition not weight
First generation rule changes - 1998-99 – 200506 rules:
Certify at lowest actual weight no later then 1/8
Compete at certified weight on or before 1/8
One-half of his weigh-ins at certified weight
Use of sweat boxes, hot showers, whirlpools, rubber,
vinyl and plastic type suits, diuretics, or other
methods prohibited
Weigh-in a maximum of 1 hour before dual meet
Random draw for starting weight class in each dual
National Federation
• “Beginning in 2006-07, each
state association shall develop
and utilize a weightmanagement program”
– Hydration testing that includes a
urine specific gravity not to exceed
– Body fat assessment no lower than
7% males/12% females
– Monitored weekly weight loss
plan not to exceed 1.5% a week.
• 48 states sponsor HS wrestling
– 29 states have or will have this
type of program in place
Objections to the Rule
Effectiveness of current wrestling rules
– Complaints have dropped off precipitously
Accuracy of body fat testing
± 3-4%, a span of nearly 10 lbs crossing 2 weight classes
Racial differences
Validity of urine specific gravity testing
Doesn’t curb rapid episodic weight loss
– The problem is the method of weight loss
Dehydration can be physiologically dangerous
– Caused virtually all the problems associated with weight
loss in the past
Objections to the Rule
• Inequity for kids especially football players
who are losing substantial fat
• No significant problem with low body fat
– Some wrestlers are naturally 7% body fat
• 3%/week in NCAA heat publications
• Costs and administrative burden
Objections to the Rule
• Differences between high school and
college wrestlers have been substantially
– Less intense set of ethics and standards about
weight loss
• Serves to take away an elite athlete's options
– May affect performance or scholarship goals
• New Mexico lawsuit
OHSAA Wrestling Weight
Certification Program - OVERVIEW
• Wrestlers frequently
attempt to lose weight
rapidly, often in an
unhealthy and unsafe
manner, to gain a
perceived advantage
OHSAA Wrestling Weight
Certification Program - OVERVIEW
• Program developed in response to the need for
guidance of wrestlers as they make decisions
about diet, nutrition, and weight control
– Promoting proper weight maintenance among high
school wrestlers by developing a weight control
program that encourages safe weight loss
– Program designed to assist wrestlers and coaches in
avoiding potentially harmful, rapid weight reduction
OHSAA Wrestling Weight
Certification Program - OVERVIEW
• Many states have instituted body composition
testing programs in the past several years
• Purposes of body composition testing program
– Determine the lowest safe and healthy weight for each
– Provide a safe wrestling experience for all high school
– The wrestler’s lowest certifiable weight may not be his
or her optimal competitive weight
OHSAA Wrestling Weight
Certification Program - OVERVIEW
• In addition to this weight
certification program,
– Imperative that wrestling
coaches monitor athletes
throughout the entire season
to ensure they are
maintaining or losing
weight in a healthy and safe
Steps of Testing Procedure
• These measurements should
ideally be taken prior to the first
practice but must be performed
prior to the first competition
• It is strongly suggested that at
least 2 schools participate in each
testing session. This will allow
more personnel to help with the
process, alleviate travel costs to
regional sites, and mitigate
concerns about the integrity of
the process
Getting Ready for the Test
 No vigorous activity on the evening before and
the day of the testing.
 Avoid any caffeinated beverages on the day
before and day of the testing.
 On the day of testing, drink 500ml (17 oz.) Of
fluid. (A sports drink is an excellent choice).
 In preparation for the hydration test drink 2-4
cups of water in 1-2 hour period immediately
preceding the test.
 Be awake three hours prior to testing.
 Do not eat two hours prior to testing.
 Avoid any vitamin or mineral supplements
two days before and the day of testing.
Upon Arrival…
• Wrestlers should report in
“weigh-in attire” only
– Males should be dressed in
a t-shirt and shorts
– Females should be dressed
in shorts, a sports bra and
tank top
• Each athlete is required to have
a completed individual profile
form and parental permission
– Complete demographics
section prior to arrival
• First report to the station where
weight is recorded
Step 1 - Assessment of Hydration
 Completion of a hydration test is required
before any wrestler can undergo a body
composition or weight assessment
 Purposes:
Dehydration will concentrate urine and thereby
increase the urine’s specific gravity. Accurate
determination of minimum wrestling weight from
assessments requires the wrestler to be property
Dehydration or loss of water weight will directly
affect minimal wrestling weight
Hydration Requirement
• Hydration testing is done immediately prior
to and at the same site where the body
composition testing occurs
• Each wrestler must pass a test to
substantiate that they are at an acceptable
level of hydration before they can proceed.
Urine specific gravity must be 1.025 or less
Hydration Requirement
• Wrestlers who fail the hydration
measurement will need to:
– Reschedule assessment no sooner than 48 hours
following test failure
– Pay another full assessment fee at their re-test
What Is Specific Gravity?
– Indication of relative proportion of dissolved solid
components to the total volume of the specimen
– An indication of relative degree of concentration of the
– Elevated whenever with excessive loss of water through
sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or elevated body
– Elevated glucose and protein do not tend to affect the
– Typically higher in the first morning sample and will be
different in random samples through the day
Obtaining A Urine Sample
• To assure an appropriate urine
sample has been collected for
testing the following procedures
are required:
• Area
– A bathroom with toilet(s) or
urinal(s) can be used by the
wrestler to provide a urine
sample. The determination
of specific gravity can be
completed in another area,
but a means of
appropriately disposing of
the urine must be available
as well
Obtaining A Urine Sample
• Safety
• Use gloves when measuring the urine and
appropriately dispose of the urine
• Place cup in hazard collection system
• Collection containers: paper cups of sufficient
size to provide a 20-30 ml (1-2 oz) urine
sample can be used by the wrestler to collect
the sample
Steps For Collecting The Urine
School personnel must ensure that the wrestler
has provided a sample of their own urine.
Reasonable supervision is the key
Water faucets must be shut off. Wrestlers should not
have access to the sinks where water can be added to
the samples
Blue, green or red dye may be added to the toilet so
that wrestlers will not be tempted to dip their cup in
the toilet water
Steps For Collecting The Urine
– School personnel must supervise the process of
urine sample collection. Reasonable
supervision does not mean witnessing the
sample going from the body into the cup
– School personnel are to ensure that conditions
do not exist that could compromise the integrity
of the urine sample collection (bulky clothes,
other containers, dipping the cup into the toilet
water, horseplay, etc)
Butt Wedge & the Whizzinator
Steps For Collecting The Urine
– School personnel should be in all traffic areas
between the collection area and the testing area.
Any possible problem in the urine collection of
an athlete necessitates voiding their sample and
the provision of another sample with more
– Normally one to three wrestlers can be
supervised at one time by school personnel
Steps For Collecting The Urine
The following procedures have been developed
to minimize dishonest techniques to bypass the
urine test and maximize the athletes’ right to
– Mark each urine collection cup to identify each
wrestler. The athlete’s collection number should be
marked on the container. This number corresponds to
the number on the individual profile form
– Instruct each wrestler to enter the toilet or urinal one
at a time with nothing but the urine collection cup
Steps For Collecting The Urine
– Instruct the wrestler to begin urinating;
Allowing a small amount to fall into the toilet
bowl (this clears the urethra contaminants)
– Then, in the urine collection cup, catch
approximately 1 to 2 ounces of urine and
remove the collection cup from the urine stream
– Allow reasonable time for the wrestler to
provide a sample of urine
Steps For Collecting The Urine
– After collection of the urine by the wrestler,
appropriate personnel should ensure that the
urine is warm by feel on the outside of the
collection cup
– If the urine is cold or suspect, reject that sample
and require the wrestler to provide another
sample under closer supervision
– Once completed, the wrestler will give the
sample to the proper authority and move along
through the assessment process
Testing The Sample
• Only urine dipsticks will
be used to measure
hydration levels. The
Bayer Multistix and
Chemstrips or their
equivalent are the required
urine dipsticks to be used
• The cost of reagent strips
averages about $50.00 for
a package of 100
Testing The Sample
Assessor tests the sample using a urine dipstick
according to the manufacturer’s directions
• Strip is pulled from container
– Note: trim the strip so the “specific gravity” is
the bottom block (furthest from finger tips)
• Completely immerses strip in fresh urine sample
• Make certain all reagent patches are moistened
Testing The Sample
• Strip should be removed immediately running edge
of strip along container to remove excess urine
(caution not to “whip” or “snap” urine residue from
free end of strip)
• Allow strip to air dry in horizontal position
• Hold strip next to color chart on bottle or supplied
• Compare specific gravity to color on card at 1 min
Testing The Sample
• Assessor records the wrestler’s actual reading on
the individual profile form and check pass or fail
• Measurements greater than 1.025 will disqualify
the athlete from continuing with the rest of the
• Wrestlers who pass the hydration test will move
on to the next step in the assessment process
Urine Test Strips
Step 2 – Assessment of Body
• Those meeting the specific hydration requirement
will proceed to skinfold assessment area
• Area should be controlled so the assessor can
concentrate on the accuracy and communication of
scores to the recorder
• The setting should allow privacy for the subject
and confidentiality of the recorded information
Skinfold Assessment
• Based on the relationship between subcutaneous fat & total
body fat and its inverse relationship to body density
• Subject is measured at a selected number of sites to
determine the thickness of the skin and the subcutaneous
fat deposition
• Skinfold thicknesses are used in an equation to calculate
body density
– Equations have been derived for specific populations, which is a
key to validity of the prediction.
As shown below, the goal is to measure a double fold of
skin and subcutaneous tissue (with sides of skinfold
approximately parallel). The thicker the fat layer, the wider
the fold.
Standardized Skinfold Assessment
• A key to the success of this program is the ability
to standardize the assessment procedures and the
• Do not take measurements when the subject's skin
is moist (ensure that the skin is dry, and has no
– Do not take measurements immediately after exercise
• May be a problem because some wrestlers may be attempt
rapid weight reduction through exercise just prior to the
Measuring a Skinfold
The subject should be standing in the anatomical
position with the skin for potential skinfold sites
All measurements are obtained on the right side
of the body
Identify the sites to be measured. The triceps,
abdomen and subscapular folds for males. The
triceps and subscapular for females
Measuring a Skinfold
– Palpate the site to familiarize both you and the
subject with the area to be measured
• Carefully mark the sites
• The largest source of error in skinfold testing is
inaccurate site selection
– Become familiar with the width of the thumb and
index finger as well as the perpendicular approach
to site assessment prior to the elevation of each
specific skinfold
Measuring a Skinfold
– Elevate the double fold of skin and subcutaneous
fat with the thumb and index finger of the left
hand 1 cm above or adjacent to the measurement
site on the long axis of the measurement
– The fold should be lifted in such a manner as to
have two parallel sides
– Keep the fold elevated as you measure
During the measurement, ensure that the shape of the
skinfold is maintained
Measuring a Skinfold
– Measure with caliper in right hand. Hold the
caliper perpendicular to the skinfold and with the
skinfold dial facing up and easily readable
• Place the caliper pads 1 cm below the fingers and
half-way the depth of the fat fold
• Release the caliper pads gently
– Caliper measurement surface should be in contact
with the skinfold for 2 to 4 seconds
Measuring a Skinfold
• Open the jaws prior to removing off the body
– Record to nearest 0.5 mm
– Obtain (through rotation of sites) three measures
(at least 15 seconds apart) with no more than a 0.5
mm difference between any two measurements
(eg. 9.5, 10, 10.5). For wrestlers with very thick
skinfolds, measuring within 1-2 mm is more
realistic and is acceptable
Measuring a Skinfold
– Record for each of three sites for males (sub
scapular, abdominal and triceps)
– Record only sub scapular and abdominal
measurements for females
• Record in the boxes on the skinfold data
• Lange skinfold calipers or equivalent are
the only accepted instruments to determine
body fat percentage
– The calipers must have been checked for
accuracy using a calibration block prior to the
beginning of the current wrestling season
• The average cost of calipers is around $150
to $200
• A tape measure for site location especially during
training and practice for site identification
• A felt pen (preferably washable ink) for site
• A certified/calibrated scale for determination of
total body weight at same time as skinfold
assessment. The scale must have been certified
within the previous year
Lange Skinfold Calipers
Site Selection and Identification
• The sites and
regression equation
selected for the
program are those
described specifically
for use with young
male wrestlers and the
Boileau equation for
Triceps Skinfold
Vertical fold on posterior aspect of arm,
midway between lateral projection of
acromion process and inferior margin
of olecranon process. Flex the elbow to
90 degrees to identify the landmarks.
Site Selection and Identification
• Triceps- measured vertically in the midline
of the posterior aspect of the upper arm,
over the triceps muscle, midway between
the lateral acromion process of the scapula
and the inferior margin of the olecranon
process of the ulna
– Elbow is flexed to identify the landmarks but
extended and relaxed to elevate the skinfold
Subscapular Skinfold
Diagonal fold just below the
inferior angle of scapula
Site Selection and Identification
• Subscapular - measured on a diagonal axis, (left
shoulder to right hip) one centimeter below the
inferior angle of the scapula. The site is angled
infero-laterally about 45 degrees in the natural
cleavage line of the skin
– May be necessary to have the subject place their arm
behind the back to make the anatomical features more
– Arm is returned to the relaxed anatomical position for
the measurement
Abdomen Skinfold Site
Vertical fold, one inch to the right
side of and ½ inch below the navel
The Jackson-Pollock procedure uses a vertical fold
2 cm to the right of the umbilicus
Site Selection and Identification
• Abdomen - measured vertically, the site is
located 3 centimeters lateral to the midpoint
of the umbilicus and 1 cm inferior to the
– Subject must stand erect with weight on both
feet, relax the abdominal wall musculature and
breathe normally during the assessment
Formula For Calculation Of Body
Composition - OHSAA
• Just so you are aware of the
equations used to determine
body fat percentages
• All calculations are done online
using the NWCA optimal
performance calculator
• An additional 1% is built-in to
the equation to account
measurement error
Values for Skinfold Assessment
Process for Males
1. The Lohman equation is used to calculate body density of males
– Body density (Bd)=[1.0973-(sum skinfold x .000815)]+[(sum
skinfold)2 x .00000084]
– Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold + sub scapular skinfold +
abdominal skinfold
2. The Brozek equation is used to calculate body fat percentage from body
– Percent body fat = (457/bd)-(414.2)
3. To calculate minimum weight at 7 % body fat
– Fat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100)
– Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fw
– Minimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷ .93
Values for Skinfold Assessment
Process for Females
1. The
Boileau equation is used to calculate the body
fat percentage for females
– Percent body fat = [1.35 x (sum skinfold)] - [0.012 x
(sum skinfold) 2] - 3.4
• Sum of skinfold = triceps skinfold+ sub scapular skinfold
2. To calculate minimum wrestling weight at 12%
body fat
– Fat weight (fw) = total body weight x (%bf/100)
– Lean body mass (lbm) = tbw – fw
– Minimum wrestling weight = (lbm) ÷ .88
Step 3 Entering the Data
Step 3 – Entering the Data
Results of the hydration, height and body
weight assessment will be entered into the
NWCA weight certification internet
calculator on the Initial Assessment page
at the NWCA website
It is recommended that all assessment
data for each wrestler is initially recorded
on paper so a “hard copy” backup system
is available in case of data entry error.
Data Protocol
• Only the assessor shall enter the information from
the worksheets to the NWCA web site after all
subjects have been evaluated
– It is the responsibility of the assessor to input the data
of each wrestler on the NWCA within 72 hours of the
• Calculation and redistribution of results to schools
will be done online. Results can be printed from
the NWCA web site
Data Protocol
• Each OHSAA approved
assessor will be provided
an assessor ID and
assessor password.
– These will be provided via
e-mail to the assessors by
the OHSAA after
completion and registration
of the OHSAA assessors’
Input of Data
1. Go to
2. Go to the horizontal menu and click on “WEIGHT
3. You will now be directed to the optimal performance calculator
program. On the horizontal menu, click on “SCHOLASTIC
4. On the horizontal menu, go to “ASSESSORS” and, on the drop-down
menu, click on “INITIAL ASSESSMENT”
5. On the NWCA assessor log in page, enter the following:
• A) assessor ID
• B) assessor password
• C) school NWCA card # (receive from the wrestling coach)
• D) school password (receive from the wrestling coach)
Click on Scholastic Link
Scholastic OPC Home Page
Login Page
Assessor Code
Login Page
Input of Data
• Enter the following information from the
individual profile form. (Wrestler’s gender
automatically defaults to male; If wrestler is
female, click on “click to add female wrestler”.)
A) name of student-athlete: (last name, first name)
B) wrestler’s grade (9-12)
C) alpha date (enter date of assessment)
Input of Data
D) urine specific gravity (click on “pass”. If the specific
gravity is 1.026 or above, click do not proceed any
further. E) alpha body weight
F) skin-fold measurements
G) enter the raw data from the skinfold caliper
• The minimum wrestling weight will
automatically be calculated
Initial Assessment
Hydration Results
Body weight
Skinfold Data Then Entered Into the Initial Assessment Form for
the Calculation of Minimal Wrestling Weight.
Skinfold data
Alpha Master Report
Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat
• Any male wrestler whose body fat percentage is
below 7% or any female wrestler whose body fat
percentage is below 12%, will not be allowed to
wrestle below their actual weight at the time of the
Wrestlers Below 7% & 12% Body Fat
• Clearance is for one season and expires the day
after the completion of the state wrestling
• Any male athlete who is cleared to participate
below 7% or female athlete who is cleared to
participate below 12%, may not wrestle below
their actual weight at the time of the assessment.
Weight Loss Per Week
• A weight loss limit of 1.5 percent of body
weight at the time of the assessment per
week has been set
• The athlete’s minimum weight will be listed
on the alpha master roster
• The weight loss plan will determine the
earliest date a wrestler may compete at his
minimum weight
Appeal Process
• Any athlete may appeal his/her skinfold measurements or
• A wrestler may compete before or during an appeal at his
or her lowest approved weight based on the initial
• All steps of the appeal shall occur within 14 calendar days
of the original alpha date
• The 1.5% weight loss limitation is in effect the day
following the alpha date
• The date on which a wrestler may compete at a
specific weight may not be appealed
Step 1
• Reassessment: The athlete shall repeat the “Alpha
Weigh-In” as described
• The master assessor shall be responsible for
conducting the initial appeal using skinfold
• The reassessment shall occur with 14 calendar
days of the original Alpha date unless a written
extension is granted by the OHSAA before the
expiration of the 14-day period.
Step 1
• Reassessment includes hydration assessment, weight
measurement plus three measurements of the skinfold
sites. If the hydration assessment is failed, the wrestler
may not be reassessed for a minimum of 48 hours.
• When the assessor enters the appeal data, they must
indicate that this is an APPEAL by entering the
information using the APPEAL link.
• Failure to adhere to these conditions or timelines will be
cause for denial.
• Wrestler is responsible for any costs incurred during the
appeal process.
Step 2
• If dissatisfied with the initial results, the
wrestler may choose to be hydrostatically
weighed or undergo air displacement
weighing to determine body fat percentage.
Step 2
• Results obtained at this step are
automatically accepted; The athlete, family,
school, or coach may not appeal further.
• Hydrostatic weighing or air displacement
weighing facilities must be approved by the
OHSAA and the appeal proposal shall be
filed with the OHSAA before any
assessment occurs.
Step 2
• All appeals and assessments must be
completed by January 29, 2007.
• The 1.5% weight loss limitation shall be
observed when conducting hydrostatic or air
displacement weighing.
Step 2
• Wrestler is responsible for any costs
incurred during the appeal process.
• A student may not wrestle at the new,
appealed weight until approval in writing
has been received from the OHSAA.
Step 2
• PENALTY: A wrestler who weighs in at a weight
before the proper amount of time has passed to
achieve the lowest minimum weight, will be
considered an ineligible wrestler and subject to
OHSAA regulations and sanctions.
• A wrestler may compete before or during an
appeal only at his or her lowest allowable weight
based on the initial assessment.
Step 2
• Step 1 may be passed
and only step 2
• Results are final and
may not be appealed
or modified.
Hydrostatic Weighing for Appeal Process
Air displacement plethysmography
(BOD POD) for appeal process.
Other Forms Generated by the NWCA
Optimal Performance Calculator
Student Athlete Log In
Wrestler Nutrition Plan
Individual Meal Plan
Sample Menus
Nutrition Education Program
• Not mandatory
• Highly recommended that each school
participate in the nutrition education aspect
of the program
• NWCA nutritional program includes
information for each individual athlete
Educating the Athlete and Parent
• Video
• Individual program
• NWCA web based
management program
Healthy Training
• Emphasis should be
placed on training-not
weight loss.
• Emphasis on lifelong
healthy living.
• Consequences of
Implementation Models
•Regional Testing Sites
•Master Assessor Directory
•“In House” Assessors
Advantages of Regional Site
• Standardizes the program (less variability with
assessments because fewer assessors are involved)
• Minimizes equipment costs because individual
schools don’t have to purchase equipment
• Efficient way to train apprentice assessors
• Coaches will perceive it as a level playing field
• Accommodates schools that do not have certified
athletic trainers
Disadvantages of Regional Site
• Cost of transporting team to regional site.
• Logistics of reassessing a wrestler who fails
the hydration test.
• Coordinating wrestlers, coaches, and
assessors schedule with facility availability.
Master Assessor Logistics
• State assigns master assessors to each
• Each master assessor trains apprentice assessors
each fall.
• Master assessor compiles a regional directory of
certified assessors in his/her region.
• Coach contacts an assessor from the directory to
schedule appointment for assessor to travel to the
Advantages of Regional Assessor
• Coaches perception of level playing field if
assessors can’t assess their own teams
• Individual schools do not have to purchase
their own equipment (the assessors bring
their own)
• Accommodates regions that have a shortage
of certified athletic trainers
Disadvantages of Regional Assessor
• Logistics of reassessing a wrestler that fails
the hydration test
• Logistics of training and retraining a large
pool of assessors
• Variability of assessments may increase due
to more assessors being involved
• Logistics of maintaining an updated
assessor directory
“In House” Assessor Logistics
• State requires each school district to train
two people to perform assessments.
• Assessors conduct assessments on wrestlers
whenever convenient for the coach/wrestler.
Advantages of “In House” Assessors
• Each school has the flexibility to conduct
assessments when convenient (some
wrestlers play fall sports, may be injured
during initial assessment period, etc.)
• Much easier to reassess a wrestler that fails
the hydration test
Disadvantages of “In House” Assessors
• Is difficult to implement in regions that do not
have ample number of certified athletic trainers
• Each school must purchase its own equipment
• Logistics of training and assuring proficiencies in
a large number of athletic trainers
Responsibilities of Testing Site
• Provide the following (after discussion with assessor):
– Staff to assist with recording data, supervision of urine samples,
and obtaining body weights
– An individual to perform the specific gravity urinalysis
– Reagent strips to determine urine specific gravity
– Collection cups for urine
– Disposable nonsterile gloves
– Individual profile forms – preferable that wrestlers bring forms
completed to the assessment
– Parental permission forms
– Certified scale
• The assessor will provide:
– Calipers
– Computer
– Any other items necessary for testing if agreed upon with the
Professional Responsibilities
• Expectations for the OHSAA assessor
– Highest professional and ethical conduct
– Treatment of wrestlers with the highest regard for “right to privacy”
and confidentiality
– Expected to conduct yourself in a manner such that there will be no
question about your positive contribution
– Professional judgment will be involved to clarify and validate the
assessment process
• The greater the depth of understanding of body composition
assessment, the better your ability in representing the OHSAA,
serving our student-athletes and administering the program
• No substitute for practice and experience. In-service participation, in-depth
knowledge about all aspects of the body composition assessment, careful
site identification, and practice will assist in the accuracy and value of this
Training the Assessor
• Only an OHSAA assessor, who has successfully
completed the OHSAA in-service education
program, may conduct body composition
• It is considered a “conflict of interest” for an
active wrestling coach, at any level, to become an
OHSAA approved skinfold assessor. Coaches are
only allowed to perform clerical and
organizational duties
Master assessors are individuals who have
at least 3 years of skinfold assessment
experience. They are individuals who will
teach other subsequent assessors. They
will also be responsible for handling the
first step of the appeal process
An assessor may also become a master
assessor by taking a training course and
having 2 years of testing experience
Persons eligible to be trained as OHSAA
approved assessors include licensed
physicians, registered nurses, licensed
practical nurses, licensed athletic trainers,
licensed physical therapists, licensed
physician assistants, registered
nutritionists, and exercise physiologists
The assessor candidate will submit to a
training session and an annual educational
The assessor may be subject to a random
sample test to substantiate the quality and
consistency of his/her measurements
Assessor training
will consist of a
minimum of one
hour of classroom
training and one
hour of practical
A training fee will be charged to each
assessor candidate to attend the training
Upon completion of the assessor training,
each individual will receive a certificate of
completion from the OHSAA.
The cost of the training program is $20.00
and payable to the master assessor.
Assessor Recertification
– Assessors who have been certified for the previous
wrestling season and wish to recertify must:
• Complete a closed book examination. This test may be
accessed at the OHSAA website. The test must be submitted to
OHSAA at least 30 days in advance of the alpha weigh-in date.
• Pay a recertification fee. This fee is $10.00 and is payable to
– Assessors are required to repeat the initial assessor
training program when a lapse of one year or more
occurs or significant performance decline is reported to
• All costs incurred for the initial
assessment and appeal process
are the responsibility of the
school or parent
• An assessor may charge up to
$5.00 per athlete for each
assessment plus $30.00 per
hour. This charge is assessed for
any athlete who passes or fails
the urine specific gravity test
• An athlete who appeals the initial test will be
charged $5.00 for a body fat assessment using
skinfold calipers
• Assessors are permitted to charge mileage at the
IRS standard rate whenever travel is required to a
• Assessors are permitted to charge a service fee of
up to $30.00 per hour
• CLIA lab certification will be obtained by the
OHSAA and all assessors will work under that
Thank You!
Extra Slides
The Real Problem
Problem is method of weight loss, ie
dehydration – rapid short term losses
Not %BF – some wrestlers are already this
Or even # of pounds lost – a very fat wrestler
clearly can lose a lot of pounds
Differences Between College and HS
Proposed rules ignore difference in HS and
college wrestlers
Intensity lower
Multi–sport participation
May not take into account the issue of the wrestler coming
off football
Modeled after NCAA rules, but NCAA handbook
states that for all other sports, concern is when
weight loss is “ 5% or more in several days”
Losing Weight
• There are 2 ways of losing weight - slow "negative
energy balance" and rapid "dehydration" both are
OK if done correctly and not in excess
• Rapid drastic dehydration is dangerous
• Dehydration is kept at a tolerable level by
reducing time between weigh-in and competition
as is the case with high school rules
• Training the assessors
– When and where
• Collection sites
– Responsibilities
• Body composition measurements
– Body fat testing
• Hydration testing
– Urine specific gravity
• Inputting the data at NWCA
Data Forms
Reagent Strips
On Line
Establishing Minimum Weights
Specific Gravity Assessment Procedure
- Reagent Strips Method
• Bayer Multistix – product must have 8 sg or 10 sg
• Bayer Multistix is a registered name for one of the
most common visually read urinalysis reagent
strips available which provide urine chemistry
information. One of the test strip areas is designed
to assess specific gravity. Other test strip areas
provide for assessment of glucose, bilirubin,
ketone, blood, ph, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite,
and leukocytes in the urine
Body Composition
• The human body can be represented as composed
of at least two components:
• Lean body mass (LBM) = the muscle and bone
mass predicted to be in the body
• Body fat (BF) = essential and non-essential fat
storage predicted to be in the body
Lean body mass(LBM) = the weight of the lean tissue
of the body such as muscle, bone, and blood. The weight
of the body without the fat weight. LBM = TBW-FW
Fat weight(FW) = the weight of the fat tissue of the
body. Includes both essential and stored fat tissue. FW =
Minimum wrestling weight (MWW) = the lowest
weight at which a wrestler may compete, determined to
be 7 % male , 12% female, body fat for the Michigan
wrestling monitoring program
Total body weight (TBW) = weight of the body on a
certified, calibrated scale
Body density(BD) = the mass of the body per unit of
volume. (The fat free component is assumed to have a
density of 1.100 gm/cm3. The mass of fat is considered
to be about .90 gm/cm3.)
Percent body fat(%bf) = the proportion of total body
weight that is fat weight and expressed as a percentage.
%BF = (TBW-LBM) / (TBW) x 100
Entering the Data
Name, class, etc.
Input of Data
• You are now on the Initial Assessment Page.
Proceed by entering the following
information from the wrestler’s Individual
Profile Form (only use the “TAB” key to
move from box to box). If you are entering
multiple schools, you must logout before
entering the new school
Input of Data
1. In order for the program to calculate the numbers in
steps 4-6, you must “tab” through each step after
you enter the % body fat number in step 3. If the
program did not automatically calculate steps 4-6,
then return to step 3, enter the percent body fat and
hit the “TAB” key three times.
2. Click on “save” to save this student -athlete’s entry.
3. The screen will automatically proceed to a blank
screen, per step 1 and continue entering additional
wrestlers. If this is your last entry, return to the main
page and logoff.
How To View The Alpha Master
• On the scholastic OPC homepage menu bar, click
on the “Alpha Master Report” under the
“Assessors” tab on the menu bar.
• The Alpha Master Report will appear with all of
the team’s wrestlers and their assessment data (this
includes the wrestler’s minimum weight class and
the first date they may complete at that weight
• You may print out this form from the file options
at the top of the menu page.
How To Delete A Wrestler
• After performing an assessment on a wrestler you
may go back and delete the wrestler if you have an
• Underneath the assessors tab on the main menu,
click on “initial assessment.”
• A blank initial assessment form will appear. Click
on the wrestler you would like to delete.
• Once the wrestlers assessment form appears, scroll
to the bottom and click on delete wrestler.
Prototypical Testing Set-up
1. Forms,
money, cups
2. Bathroom
3. Hydration
4. Scale
5. Body fat
Dots = staff