Unit 1 test study guide

Unit 1 test study guide
Climate (1)
• What is the most important factor determining
the climate of a region?
• Mid latitude regions
• Deltas
______ are common
landforms created by
rivers flowing into a
larger body of water
as the river waters
meet the tide of the
larger bodies of
El Nino (3)
• El Nino brings warm & wet climate conditions
This brings increase rainfall for Texas.
• A cold current that flows from west to east across
the southern part of the Pacific Ocean turns toward
the equator along the coast of South America and
flows north along the coast of Chile and Peru.
Every 2 to 10 years, strong winds spread the warm
water over a large area resulting in droughts in
some areas and flooding in others.
Climate (5)
- Temperature ranges in areas located near oceans do not
vary much because water heats and cools more slowly.
- Temperature ranges in-land, far away from the influence of
water temperatures will vary more. (continentality)
(7) Climate is the weather conditions of a
particular location over a long period of time
As with polar bears, other
bears such as black
bears, thrive better in the
higher latitudes.
Adapting To Our Environment (8)
- What is the difference between human modification
and human adaptation of the environment?
- Give an example of human modification.
- Give an example of human adaptation.
- Give an example of humans depending on the
Answer to the question… (8)
A human modification of the environment means that
humans have actually changed some part of the physical
(building dams, canals, roads, etc.)
Human adaptation to the environment is a change in
human behavior to cope with environmental
(wearing heavy clothes in the winter or cold climates,
wearing light clothes in summer or warm climates,
heating homes, air-conditioning & insulation in
homes, & preparing for a hurricane, etc.)
Subsistence farming (6)
• Subsistence
agriculture is selfsufficiency farming in
which farmers grow
only enough food to
feed their families .
In more developed areas, the building of dams
have helped improve farming and a better way of life
by providing electricity and a reservoir for irrigation.
• Adapting to the environment is wearing clothes,
air-conditioned buildings, insulation.
• Modifying the environment is building: Houses,
tunnels, bridges, dams.
Cultures & Modification / Adaptation (16)
• Native America Indians depended on the
buffalo for food and clothing. However,
because of the settlers killed man of these
animals, the buffalo became extinct.
• Native Americans believed in community
ownership. The English settlers believed in
private ownership.
Sun Earth Relation (9)
• When does a hemisphere have a cold climate?
When it is tilted away from the sun
• When does a hemisphere have a warm
When it is tilted towards the sun
• Explain the seasons of the Southern and
Northern Hemispheres and how they vary.
• When its winter in the Northern Hemisphere
it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere.
Physical maps (10)
Vegetation maps are
physical maps that
show a regions
such as vegetation.
They also will show
man made features
as well.
Plate Tectonic Theory
• There general types of plate boundaries are
recognized: convergent, divergent, and transform.
Earthquakes (4)
• Plates moving in any
direction causes
• The worst are caused by
plates rubbing past each
other as in C
• This happens along the
Californian coast
• An underwater
earthquake along a
subduction zone can
create a tsunami.
Sea floor spreading
• Large continents
begin to crack and
split apart
• The gaps fill with
• Small seas become
• The mid ocean ridge
continues to produce
new crust
( page 2)
• Subduction – plates diving under another plate (e.g. oceanic
plate diving under a continental plate)
• Convergent – plates colliding, or crashing into one another
(creates mountains or plateaus)
• Divergent – plates spreading or moving apart from one
another (create rift valleys - The Great Rift Valley in east
• Transforming – plates sliding past each other (causes
earthquakes along boundaries)
• Subduction – the oceanic plate diving under a
continental plate
• Convergent – creates mountains or plateaus
• divergent – The Great Rift Valley in east Africa
• transforming – causes earthquakes along
• Earthquakes
• A sudden and violent shaking of the ground,
sometimes causing great destruction, as a
result of movements within the earth's crust
or volcanic action.
Landforms are worn away by
water, wind, and ice. Water
erosion creates the deepest
valleys and canyons.
Forms Of Erosion
Chemical Weathering
This is caused by
chemical reactions as a
result of interactions
between elements in the
air or water and the
minerals in the rock (water
and substances dissolved
in it) rather than by
mechanical processes.
• Mechanical weathering is the physical that change
the characteristics of rock on or near the earth’s
surface, occurring slowly over many years.
• Landforms are worn away by water, wind, and ice.
Water erosion creates the deepest valley’s and
Region (12)
• an area of the earth’s surface with similar
What region would you find a lot of rain swamps and marsh land?
Southeastern U.S.
Gulf coast
• Explain how hurricanes and typhoons are created.
When warm winds and water currents come together, and
are effected where by the rotation of the earth on it’s axis.
This is called the : Next page
Coriolis effect.
• Be able to identify the various climate regions.
Example: Cuba, Jamaica and Haiti.
• Urbanization
Absolute location 14
• Latitude/Longitude
• Latitude: place north or south of the earth's
equator, usually expressed in degrees and
• Longitude: lines on a planet that measure
distance east and west from a line designated
as the "Prime Meridian
• Relative location is :is the location of
something in comparison to the location of
something else. For example, if I said, "My
house is near the school," that's a relative
location. I'm telling you where my house is
located relative to the school.
• Relative location is giving directions while
latitude and longitude give you the exact
location of a place.
• Movement by people from rural areas to cities
• Water cycle
• Movement of water from oceans to the air to
the ground back to the oceans.
• Geography
• The study of the distribution and interaction
of physical and human features on the earth.
• Be able to explain the hydrological cycle
• It is the constant movement of the earth’s
water from oceans to air to land back to
• Compare and contrast the Oceans:
• The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest
• Area: total: 155.557 million sq km
• about 15 times the size of the US; covers about
28% of the global surface; larger than the total
land area of the world
Atlantic is the second largest ocean
Indian is the third largest ocean
Southern is the fourth largest ocean
Arctic is the smallest
• Be able to explain where most of the earth’s
fresh water is found:
• Rivers and lakes.
• Explain how a map grid can help you find the
location of a place.
• Where latitude and longitude intersect is the
exact location of a place.
• Explain the earth is divided into hemispheres
• The equator divides the earth into Northern and
Southern Hemispheres
• The prime meridian divides the earth into Eastern
and Western Hemispheres