+ Unit 1 Psychology Area of Study 2 – Lifespan Development + Lesson Objectives Revision of last lesson Heredity factors Environmental factors The interaction between heredity and environmental factors and the influence they have on psychological development “Nature vs. nurture” Role of maturation in development Discussion about Genie study Watch a bit more + Revision of last lesson… Lifespan development Stages of the lifespan development Areas of lifespan development Continuous vs. Discontinuous development Sequential nature of development (Quantitative vs. Qualitative changes) Individual differences (between and within) Hot potatoes quizzes on Moodle - Lifespan 1 - Lifespan 2 + Progress + Heredity Also known as and referred to as ‘Nature’ Inborn Involves the transmission of characteristics from biological parents to their offspring via genes at conception Theorists believe that individuals behave as they do due to genetic predispositions Conception – Sperm cell (male) fertilizes the egg cell/ovum (female), these cells combine to form a new cell called a zygote. The zygote contains a unique combination of genes from the sperm and ovum. Box 4.5 p.157 + Heredity We already know several characteristics that are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. Discuss some examples… eye color hair color body type rates of maturity in the brain and nervous system - blood type illnesses/disorders If a parent has an illness (schizophrenia) increases the likelihood that the offspring will develop the illness It is proposed that intelligence, personality and aggression are also encoded in an individuals genes (DNA) + Environment Also known as and referred to as ‘Nurture’ Belief that individuals behave the way they do because they were taught to do so Environment refers to all the experiences, objects and events to which we are exposed throughout our entire lifetime. Discuss some examples… Brothers & Sisters Schooling Upbringing Occupation Income Friendship groups Religion Media Illness These factors can influence humans individually or collectively + Heredity vs. Environmental Characteristics • Construct a table in your notes with two columns, one with the heading Heredity and one with the heading Environment. • In each column list several characteristics that you have that you believe are influenced by either heredity or environmental factors. • We will discuss and combine our lists as a class. Complete questions 1-4 in learning activity 4.9 p.158 + Learning activity 4.9 p.158 1. Heredity - ‘Nature’ – The inborn characteristics are passed on from the biological parents to the offspring via genes at conception Environment - ‘Nurture’ – Individuals behave the way they do because they were taught to do so through their experiences with the environment 2. Examples – A hereditary factor that has influenced my development is height. My parents are both short, therefore I am short. An environmental factor that has influenced my development is my friendship group, they all took dance lessons therefore I took dance lessons (flexibility). 3. The main focus of contemporary theorists is the interaction between heredity and environmental factors. This is due to the evidence that both heredity and environmental factors influence the shaping of human development. Now theorists aim to explain how much of each factors contribute to the development of particular characteristics. Figure 4.15 p.160 Illustrates the interaction of factors to feeling happy 4. Greater influence discussion + Role of Maturation The orderly and sequential developmental changes which occur in the nervous system and other bodily structures controlled by our genes. Why doesn’t a baby play basketball? Physical development (muscles to run, jump, dribble, shoot, defend) Intellectual development (understanding the rules and procedures of the game) Emotional development (be able to deal/cope with things not going your way) Social development (interaction with other members on the team, verbal communication) “Readiness” – unless the necessary bodily structures are sufficiently mature then no amount of practice will produce the particular behaviour. This principle is used within schooling and the documents the government produce. + Genie Discussion about the story of ‘Genie’ so far… Why are we watching Genie’s story? What did you think about the story? How did the story make you feel? How were you able to relate Genie’s story to the physical, intellectual, emotional and social areas of development? Were there differences is Genie’s development to what is considered normal? If so, why do you think these differences were apparent? Do you want to know more? + Summary Write a short paragraph on a piece of paper utilizing all the key terms for today’s lesson – this will be handed in Hereditary Environment Maturation Quizzes (Need to be finished off at home – by Monday) Read pages 146 – 161 to reinforce the material we have covered (especially as we miss Thursday’s lesson) Read ahead if you would like an insight into what is to come GOOD LUCK IN YOUR ATHLETIC EVENTS!!!