Generalized diet and teeth
The senses and the brain:
› Color vision (diurnal primates only)
The senses and the brain:
› Stereoscopic vision (depth perception)
 Eyes to the front
 Visual information from each eye transmitted
to visual centers in both hemispheres in the
 Visual information processed by specialized
brain structures
The senses and the brain:
› Large and complex brains
 Visual information processing
 Large areas involved with the hand
Maturation, Learning and Behavior
› Long gestation
› Single births instead of litters
› Delayed maturation
› Tendency to live in mixed-age groups
› Dependence on learned behavior
› Improved access to food
› Protection from predators
Types of groups:
› Multi-male/multi-female
› Most common type.
› Chimps and Bonobos usually live in mm/mf
fission-fusion groups.
Types of groups:
› Pair-bond
› Examples: Gibbons and Siamangs, some
Types of groups: One-Male/Multi Female
› Gorilla
The study of animals and their habitats
that looks for patterns of relationship
between the environment and social
Assumes that the various components of an
environment have evolved together.
Food (amounts, qualities, distribution)
 Distribution of water
 Predators (distribution, types)
 Distribution of sleeping sites
 Activity patterns (nocturnal/diurnal)
 Relationships with other species
 Impact of human activities
Of the baboon…
› (MM/MF)
› Savanna
› Predators can be common
Of the Slow Loris…
› Solitary foraging
› Insectivor
› Slow moving
The study of the relationship between
behavior and natural selection.
Sociobiological theory states that certain
behaviors or behavioral pattern have
been selected for because they
increase reproductive success in
 K-selection (vs. r-selection)
 Male / Female behaviors
 Sexual dimorphism
The lack of long-term data:
› On demography
› On social behavior
› Resource distribution
Little data on relatedness through male
 How to assign reproductive costs and
benefits to particular behaviors