# Value

```Allen High School
Fall Semester Midterm Exam
Elements of Art
• Form
• Line
• Shape
• Color
• Texture
• Space
• Value
Line
• A continuous mark
by a moving point
• 2D = pencil mark
• 3D = wire
• Implied = series of
unconnected points
create a line
• Outline or Contour
More lines!
Color
• How light reacts
when it reflects
on an object or
surface
Color - Intensity
Color &amp;
Value
Shape
• Enclosed space
defined by other
elements of art.
• Usually 2D
• Can be 3D (but
used as a general
term)
Shapes- 2 Types
Organic or Geometric
Form
• 3D
• Encloses Volume, as a
kind of “visual weight”
• Examples:
• Cubes, Spheres,
Cylinders
Color
• Has 3
Properties:
1. Hue- the name
of the color
2. Intensitybrightness or
dullness
3. Value- lightness
or darkness
Color - Intensity
Color &amp;
Value
Value
• Describes
the darkness
or lightness
of a color.
• Value is
needed to
express
Volume
Value makes Volume
=
Value:
• The lightness or darkness of a color
Texture
• Refers to the surface quality or “feel” of an
object
• Roughness or smoothness
• Hardness or softness
• Texture can be felt in 3D works or “implied” in
visual/2D drawings, paintings or photographs
Texture
Actual &amp; Implied
Space
• The distance or
area between,
around, above or
within things
• It can be a
description of
both 2D &amp; 3D
works
Space
Both Positive &amp; Negative Space are important!
Principles of Design
• Emphasis
• Balance
• Harmony
• Variety
• Movement
• Rhythm
• Proportion
• Unity
Rhythm
• A type of movement
• Seen in repeating shapes and colors
• Alternating light and dark shapes also creates
rhythm
• Also called Pattern or Repetition
Balance
• Sense of stability
• Can be created by repeating shapes or
repeating the feeling of weight within a work
• 3 Types of Balance:
Balance – 3 Types
Asymmetrical Balance
Symmetrical Balance
Proportion
• Also called Scale
• Refers to the relationships of size of objects in
a work
• Smallness &amp; largeness
Repetition:
Using the same
image over and
over again
Harmony
• Using similar
elements throughout
the work.
• Gives artwork an
“uncomplicated” feel
Unity
• The feeling of oneness
• The parts equal a
whole
• Elements of Art tie
everything together.
• No confusion
Emphasis
• Developing points
of interest to pull
a viewer's
attention
(“focal point”)
• Or thematic
emphasis=
focusing on one
idea or theme
Movement
•Adds excitement to work by showing action
and direction.
•Moves viewer’s eye throughout work
Variety
• Using different
shapes, textures,
colors &amp; values to
make a piece
interesting
Contour Line
Lines creating
boundaries that
separate one area
from another; they
define the edges and
surface ridges of an
object
Outlines
• The outside edge
of an object.
Blind Contour
Drawing in which
only contour lines
are used to
represent subject
matter. Artist keep
their eyes on the
object they are
drawing and
concentrate on
direction and
curves.
GESTURE DRAWING
• More generally,
a gesture
drawing may be
any drawing
which attempts
to capture action
or movement.
Thumbnail Sketch
• A brief/small
sketch of ideas
for brainstorming
and composition
Composition
• The overall
arrangement
and
organization of
visual elements
on a 2D surface
Color
1. Hue- the
name of the
color
2. Intensitybrightness or
dullness
Primary Colors – exist by themselves
You can NOT mix them!
Secondary
Colors –
Purple
Green
Orange
Tints of colors
1 color + white = Tint
1 Color + Black = Shade
Complementary Colors
Are OPPOSITE on the color wheel!
Red and Green
Orange and Blue
Yellow and Purple
Analagous Colors
Colors that are next to
each other on the color
wheel
Warm Colors
• Colors that
suggest warmth
• Yellow, Orange,
Red and some
Purples
Cool Colors
• Colors that
suggest coolness
• Green, Blue,
most Purples
What are different techniques
to show Value?
1. Hatching – parallel lines
2. Cross-hatching – perpendicular lines
3. Stippling - dots
Hatching
Cross Hatching
Stippling:
• The act of drawing with small dots
Noli Novak
Achromatic
• To be without color or
pigment
• Greyscale
• Black and White only
Monochromatic – 1 color with black
and white
Implied Line
• A series of unconnected points that
cause our eyes to create a line
What is a critique?
Using knowledge to evaluate or analyze a work
of art.
To review, discuss or compare an artwork
You do it every time you complete a RUBRIC!
21. Color Pencil Questions
a) Linear – color pencil technique showing
contour and value change, use of LINES
b) Mixing – using light pencil pressure with a
color pencil in an already existing GRAPHITE
drawing
23. (continued)
c) Scraffito- scraping away or scratching into the
outer surface to reveal underneath
d) Burnishing – using white (or any light color)
with heavy pressure over an area of color for a
blended/glossy effect.
e) Wax bloom – the hazy finish that sets in on a
color pencil drawing after a period of time
23. Continued
f) Layering – overlapping graphite pencils with
colored pencils.
g) Frottage – creating a texture or pattern by
coloring over a texture surface. A rubbing.
```