Reconstruction Pt2 Notes The Grant Administration

The Grant Administration (1868-1876)
President Ulysses S. Grant – 1868
Grant Presidential Scandals
1. Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and _________________.
A Credit Mobilier Scandal.
B. Whiskey Ring.
C. The “Indian Ring”
The Tweed Ring In New York City
2. William Marcy _______________(notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine)
3. [Thomas _______________  crusading cartoonist/reporter]
The Election of 1872
4. Rumors of ________________________during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans.
5. __________________________________ runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate.
6. Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank.
7. Greeley died on November 29, 1872!
8. 1872 Presidential Election - _______________________wins a second term
The Panic of 1873
9. It raises “the money question.”
a. debtors seek inflationary
monetary policy by
continuing circulation of greenbacks.
b. creditors, intellectuals support hard money.
10. 1875  Specie Redemption Act.
11. 1876  Greenback Party formed & makes gains in
congressional races  The “Crime of ’73’!
Legal Challenges of the 14th and 15th Amendments
12. The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
a. The court offered a narrow definition of the 14th Amendment.
i. It distinguished between national and state _______________________.
ii. It gave the _____________ primary authority over citizens’ rights.
1. Therefore, the courts weakened civil rights enforcement!
13. Bradwell vs. Illinois (1873)
a. Myra Bradwell, a female attorney,
had been denied the right to
practice law in Illinois.
i. She argued that in the 14th Amendment, it said that the state had reduced her
“privileges and immunities” as a citizen which was ________________________
ii. The Supreme Court rejected her claim, alluding to women’s traditional role in
the home.
1. Therefore, she should ____________ be practicing law!
14. U. S. vs. Reese, et. al. (1876)
a. The Court restricted congressional power to enforce the KKK Act.
b. The court ruled that the _______________ alone could give voting rights to individuals.
i. The 15th Amendment did NOT guarantee a citizen’s right to vote, but just listed
certain impermissible grounds to deny suffrage.
1. Therefore, a path lay open for Southern states to
__________________________ blacks for supposedly non-racial
reasons [like lack of education, lack of property, etc.]
15. U. S. vs. Cruickshank (1876)
a. LA white supremacists accused of attacking a meeting of Blacks & were convicted under
the 1870 Enforcement Acts.
i. The Court held that the 14th Amendment extended the federal power to protect
civil rights ONLY in cases involving discrimination by _______________.
1. Therefore, discrimination by individuals or groups were ___________
16. Civil Rights Cases (1883)
a. The Court declared the 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional.
i. The Court held that the 14th Amendment gave Congress the power to outlaw
discriminations by the states, but __________ by private individuals.
ii. Black people must no longer “be the special favorites of the laws.”
1. Therefore, this marked the end of ______________ attempts to protect
African American rights until well into the 20c!