The Grant Administration (1868-1876) Notes:_________________________________________ President Ulysses S. Grant – 1868 Grant Presidential Scandals 1. Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and _________________. A Credit Mobilier Scandal. B. Whiskey Ring. C. The “Indian Ring” The Tweed Ring In New York City 2. William Marcy _______________(notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine) 3. [Thomas _______________ crusading cartoonist/reporter] The Election of 1872 4. Rumors of ________________________during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans. 5. __________________________________ runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate. 6. Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank. 7. Greeley died on November 29, 1872! 8. 1872 Presidential Election - _______________________wins a second term The Panic of 1873 9. It raises “the money question.” a. debtors seek inflationary monetary policy by continuing circulation of greenbacks. b. creditors, intellectuals support hard money. 10. 1875 Specie Redemption Act. 11. 1876 Greenback Party formed & makes gains in congressional races The “Crime of ’73’! Legal Challenges of the 14th and 15th Amendments 12. The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) a. The court offered a narrow definition of the 14th Amendment. i. It distinguished between national and state _______________________. ii. It gave the _____________ primary authority over citizens’ rights. 1. Therefore, the courts weakened civil rights enforcement! 13. Bradwell vs. Illinois (1873) a. Myra Bradwell, a female attorney, had been denied the right to practice law in Illinois. i. She argued that in the 14th Amendment, it said that the state had reduced her “privileges and immunities” as a citizen which was ________________________ ii. The Supreme Court rejected her claim, alluding to women’s traditional role in the home. 1. Therefore, she should ____________ be practicing law! 14. U. S. vs. Reese, et. al. (1876) a. The Court restricted congressional power to enforce the KKK Act. b. The court ruled that the _______________ alone could give voting rights to individuals. i. The 15th Amendment did NOT guarantee a citizen’s right to vote, but just listed certain impermissible grounds to deny suffrage. 1. Therefore, a path lay open for Southern states to __________________________ blacks for supposedly non-racial reasons [like lack of education, lack of property, etc.] 15. U. S. vs. Cruickshank (1876) a. LA white supremacists accused of attacking a meeting of Blacks & were convicted under the 1870 Enforcement Acts. i. The Court held that the 14th Amendment extended the federal power to protect civil rights ONLY in cases involving discrimination by _______________. 1. Therefore, discrimination by individuals or groups were ___________ covered. 16. Civil Rights Cases (1883) a. The Court declared the 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional. i. The Court held that the 14th Amendment gave Congress the power to outlaw discriminations by the states, but __________ by private individuals. ii. Black people must no longer “be the special favorites of the laws.” 1. Therefore, this marked the end of ______________ attempts to protect African American rights until well into the 20c!