THEME AND IDEAS Stanzas 1, 3 and 5 are the same– this shows how hard it has been for the black men to get respect from white people. Helps display the main theme by showing the oppression of the black people – what they had to go through to get to where they are today. “The night has been long” – tells the reader that the black people have gone through a long, hard time trying to get the white peoples attention and to get them to understand the issue of being oppressed. The last stanza has repetitive lines in it – makes it sound like a chant – emphasises what the lines are trying to say, which is bringing all the black people together to fight for their freedom. WHAT IS BEING REPEATED? Stanzas 1, 3, 5. The line “The night has been long” In the last stanza: “I say, clap hands”, “Let us come together” WHEN IS IT REPEATED? Stanzas 1, 3, 5 are throughtout the poem The line “the night has been long” is throughout the poem at different times, but often and evenly spaced out. The last stanza has many repeated lines in it too. WHAT WAS THE EFFECT? Reinforces how hard times have been for the black people because they keep reminding the reader that “the night has been long” and its been a hard journey for them. The repitition of the line “I say, clap hands and let’s…” in the last stanza makes it sound like a chant, which is relevant to the whole ‘march’ and ‘protest’ feel of the poem, and what it is actually about. This shows the determination of the black people to fight for their freedom and rights.