You are visiting Tokyo and some Japanese friends have asked you to dinner. What do you expect? • Make a list of things you might expect to happen at this meal. What should you do? What shouldn’t you do? • Cultural Universals: features common to all cultures • Murdock (1940s) – 65 cultural universals • Dancing, family, greetings, language, music, housing, Example: Family • New members will be added to society & taken care of • Introduces children to components of their culture • However, families may look different across cultures • Subculture: group with its own unique values, norms, and behaviors that exists within a larger culture • Age, gender, ethnic, religious, political, geographic, etc… • Most do not present dangers & serve important functions • Counterculture: group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of larger society and replaces them with a new set • Anarchists, hippies, mafia • Ethnocentrism: Tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior • Extreme ethnocentrism can cause culture to stagnate – exclude possible benefits • Cultural Relativism: Belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another • Helps us keep an open mind toward cultural variations • Cultural Diffusion: Spreading of culture traits from one society to another • Can happen almost instantly with current technology • Material culture changes more readily than non-material • Discovery and invention change society, too! • Cultural Leveling: Process by which cultures become more and more alike • Functionalists • Reflects and enforces society’s central values • Encourages harmony • Subcultures diffuse discontent of subgroups • Ethnocentrism encourages group solidarity • Conflict Perspective • Reflects values of those who hold power • Encourages and maintains social inequality • Sub/counter cultures challenge those in power • Ethnocentrism encourages discrimination against powerless • Social Interaction • Maintained & modified through every day social interaction • Interaction among subcultural groups helps to transmit customs and traditions • The physical or tangible objects that members of society make, use, and share. Material culture is the STUFF we use everyday • Examples of material culture: • Food you eat • Shelter you sleep in • Transportation • Entertainment: music, books, movies • The abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behavior • Examples of Non-Material Culture • Language • Beliefs • Values • Family patterns • Political Systems • What can we know about a culture’s nonmaterial culture by examining their material culture? • In other words, what can we know about a group’s beliefs and values by examining the things/the stuff they use on a daily basis?