Brain and Behavior

Psychology 101
By: Marina Sangkavichai
Brain and Behavior
 What is the difference between the mind and brain?
Question of the Day
 How can one cure depression naturally?
 Define the neuron, synapse, and neurotransmitter and
their effects on human behavior.
Brain and Behavior
 Mind: is perceiving, feeling, thinking
 Brain: the physical organ
 Everything psychological is simultaneously
 Your every idea, every mood, every urge is a biological
Brain and Behavior
 The brain’s ultimate challenge is to understand itself
 How does the brain process information from the
world around us?
Brain Research
 Areas of Einstein’s brain were 15% larger and had more
connections than the average person
 London cab drivers show larger hippocampus due to
 Jugglers learning new routines used the right side of
their frontal lobes
Brain and Behavior
 All behavior can be traced to the activity of
 In the early 1800’s, Franz Gall invented
phrenology. He believed bumps on our skulls
could reveal our mental abilities and our character
 Nevertheless, the assumption that different parts
of the brain do control different aspects of
behavior hold true.
Brain Facts
 The brain consists of 100 billion neurons!
 ( illustration)
 Vast neurons form networks and they
communicate with one another
 Neurotransmitters are released and alter activity in
the neurons next to them
 More than 100 transmitter chemicals are found in
the brain
Neurons in the Brain
Example of Transmitter Chemicals
 Acetycholine: the neurotransmitter released by neurons to
activate muscles. Also involved in learning and memory
An undersupply of acetycholine marks Alzheimers Disease.
The Drug called Curare causes paralysis.
South American Indians put on the tips of their hunting
darts. This would cause paralysis by blocking ACH
Animals would become paralyzed when struck with these
Sarin Gas-Weapon of Mass Destruction
Example of Transmitter Chemicals
 Botulin- a poison that can form in improperly canned
food, causes paralysis by blocking ACH release from
the sending neuron.
 Injections of Botulin aka BOTOX smooths wrinkles by
paralyzing the underlying facial muscles.
Example of Transmitters
 Dopamine: influences movement, learning,
attention, and emotion.
 Excess dopamine is linked to schizophrenia. Less
dopamine the brain produces the tremors and
decreased mobility of Parkinsons Disease.
More Neurotransmitters
 Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
 A decrease of serotonin levels is linked to
 Prozac and other antidepressant drugs raise the
serotonin levels.
 Many drugs imitate, duplicate, or block these
Normal vs Depression
Normal Vs Depressed
Loss of neurotransmitter
Activity in the depressed
individuals functioning.
Primary areas affected are
those related to mood,
emotions, motor activity,
cognitive functioning, sex
drive, appetite, and sleep.
More on these “Messengers”
 These neurotransmitters tell the next neuron what to
 Synapse: the microscopic space between two neurons
is over which messages are passed.
Neurotransmitters Being Passed Through the Synapse
The Nervous System
 The central nervous system includes the BRAIN and
 ILLUSTRATION on BOARD ( The Peripheral Nervous
System )
Picture of a Neuron
The Amazing Neuron
 Neuron: the basic cell that makes up the nervous
system and that receives and sends messages within
that system
 Dendrites: branch like structures that receive
messages from other neurons
 Soma: the cell body of the neuron responsible for
maintaining the life of the cell
 Axon: tube like structure that carries the neural
message to other cells
The Neuron Forest
Real work of the brain goes on
in individual cells. An adult
brain contains about 100
billion nerve cells or neurons
with branches that connect
more than 100 trillion points.
Signals traveling through the
neuron forest form the basis of
memories, thoughts, and
Neurons are the chief type of
cell destroyed by Azheimers
Brain Cells
CNS and Peripheral Nervous
The Peripheral Nervous System
 Is divided into two parts: Somatic System and
Autonomic System
 Somatic System ( controls voluntary movement ) (
like Running )
 Autonomic System: serves internal organs and
glands of the body”self governing”. Controls body
parts you don’t even have to think of like heart
rate, breathing, digestion, perspiration ) It is on
“automatic pilot”.
Somatic System and Autonomic
 Messages from the somatic system can make the hand
move but not make the eyes dilate. Only messages
from the autonomic system can do that
Autonomic Nervous System
 System on automatic pilot ( autonomic system )
can be divided into two parts:
 Sympathetic system: gets you ready for action (
like when a dog lunges at you ) Gets you ready for
fight or flight! Speeds up heart rate, eyes dilate,
produces adrenaline to give you that surge of
 Parasympathetic system: Calms you down after a
stressful event, for example, slows down heart rate.
The Nervous System and Its
Different Branches
The Brain’s Lobes and Their
Specialities p.
 Frontal lobes: decision making, problem solving,
controlling emotions, planning
 Occipital lobes: rear of the head, processes visual
 Parietal lobes: sensations, such as touch,
temperature, pressure
 Temporal lobes: auditory information. ie. Music,
language. Stimulating this area would cause a
series of sound sensations
The Different Lobes
Split Brain Patient
 When a visual image (an orange) is flashed on the right side of the screen, it is
transmitted to the left hemisphere.
 When asked what he sees, the split-brain patient replies, “I see an orange.”
 When an image (an apple) is flashed on the left side of the screen, it is transmitted only
to the right hemisphere.
 Because the split-brain patient’s left hemisphere did not receive the image he replies, “I
see nothing.” But he can pick out the apple by touch if he uses his left hand, proving his
right hemisphere “saw” the apple.
 Left Side: talkative, analytical,
 Right side: emotional, music,
visual spatial.
 Proof of lateralization
Broca’s Aphasia
 Broca’s area in the left frontal lobe.
 Damage to this area causes a person to be unable to get
words out in a smooth connected, fashion.
 Mispronounce words, for example, cot instead of
clock, sair instead of chair.
Wernickes Area
 Lies in left temporal lobe
 Area involved in understanding the meaning of
 Could speak fluently but use the wrong words to
express themselves.
 Instead of get me something out of the
refrigerator, person will say get me something out
of the air conditioner!
Facial Agnosia
 Brain injury resulting in a person not being able to
perceive familiar faces.
 One could patient could not recognize her husband
when he came to visit her in the hospital until he
 The underside of the occipital lobe specializes in
recognizes faces.
Research Methods
 How do we study the brain?
 Ablation: means surgical removal of parts of the brain.
This helps us gain insight into purpose of the missing
parts. Or when this part of the brain is damaged, can
give us insight into what its purpose is.
Research Methods
 A steel rod went through the frontal lobes of
Phineas Gage and proceeded through his frontal
lobes.Survived. However, never the same. His
personality changed! Became a liar and foul
 This offers evidence that specific parts of the brain
are responsible for certain functions.
 Frontal lobes play a part in emotions, reading
other peoples emotions and planning and
executing actions and responses.
Phineas Gage
Research Methods
 We can actually open up a persons skull and stimulate
parts of the brain with an electrode. When this is done
during brain surgery, patients can describe how the
stimulation affected them.
 The BRAIN has no PAIN receptors! So it’s not painful
at all.
Research Methods
 MRI Scan: Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )
Produces an image of the brains interior.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
© Huntington Magnetic Resonance Center, Pasadena, California
 PET Scan stands for Positron Emission
Tomography ( PET )
 It is a computer generated image of brain activity
based on glucose consumption ( sugar ) of the
brain. This is the closest thing we have to seeing
 PET SCAN shows which areas are showing high
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis
Methamphetamine And The
Effects of “Meth”
Brain of a normal person vs brain on Meth Rot “ Ice “
Pornography and the Brain
 Pornography has evolved
 The themes are more aggressive and filmmakers
believe in pushing the envelope
 For those who consume these images, they’ve built
a tolerance to them
 It influences young people with little sexual
experience and esp. plastic minds, forming their
sexual tastes and desires.
Brain on Pornography
Watching porn as
addictive as cocaine,
meth, and alcohol.
It was discovered
the frontal lobe of
the brain shrinks in
people who are
addicted to porn.
Hijacks the brains
pleasure system and
person is prone to
irritability and
 Many men who were hooked on adult movies were
finding it harder to get excited over their partners.
 Downloading new scripts
 Tolerance
 Neurons that fire together, wire together!
Seven Habits of Highly Effective
 Continue Learning!( your brain is developing new
neurons and synapses as you learn)
 Good nutrition
 Physical exercise
 Challenge your brain with new activities
 Don’t outsource your brain ( think for yourself!)
 Stimulating friendships
 Laugh often at complex humor