Artificial Intelligence (and Games) Jonathan Schaeffer Department of Computing Science University of Alberta firstname.lastname@example.org GAMES Research Group • Largest AI research group using games • Classic Games • Chess, checkers, go… • Poker, hearts, spades… • General game playing • Commercial games • Role-playing (BioWare) • Sports (Electronic Arts) What is AI? • • • • • Amnesty International? Artificial Insemination? Army Intelligence? Air India? Three-toed sloth from South America? Artificial Intelligence • Field of computing science concerned with making computers do tasks that we regard as requiring intelligence. • All encompassing: reasoning, vision, language, learning, creativity, robotics, planning, etc. The Computer (R)Evolution Need to re-think what it means to think. AI and History One of the most profound contributions of the 20th century is the realization that intelligent behavior can be realized by non-human information processing architectures. AI is a Moving Target • Imagine going back in time… • 1910: “Black box” that can correct your spelling and grammar • 1960: Flying an airplane without human intervention • No one thinks of the above as AI • Once something becomes understood, it no longer is regarded as AI Different Architectures… …Different Solving Methods How? Why? What? Where? When? Looking Under the Hood Peek inside a “smart” program and you may find little that is “intelligent”. Yet computers do “intelligent” things. Is this a paradox? What is intelligence? Chess: Man vs Machine Garry Kasparov versus DEEP BLUE (1997) Man Versus Machine (1997) Kasparov Deep Blue 5’10” 6’ 5” Height 176 lbs 2,400 lbs Weight 34 years 0.5 years Age 50 billion neurons Computers 512 processors 2 pos/sec Speed 200,000,000 pos/sec Extensive Primitive Knowledge Electrical/chemical Power Source Electrical Enormous None Ego Crossword Puzzles • PROVERB uses multiple agents • 34% of clues/answers are repeats • specialized solvers (puns, word plays) • specialized Internet searchers • PROVERB scores well on the NY Times puzzles without understanding the clues • Information retrieval without understanding the information is a powerful technique! My Definition? Artificial intelligence creates the illusion of intelligent behavior … Artificial Stupidity Of course, some humans try to create the illusion of intelligence too! 1. Most Visible AI? • Computer games • • • • Creating “realistic” behavior Creating “realistic” conversations Real-time decision making Planning • Façade, the first game to evoke strong emotional responses Still a Long Way to Go 2. Most Successful AI? • Building strong game-playing programs • University of Alberta landmarks • • • • • • Checkers (1994; 2007) Chess (1997) Othello (1997) Scrabble (late 1990s) Backgammon (early 2000s) Poker, 2-player limit (2007) 3. Most Used AI? • Email spam filters (learn patterns) 4. Biggest AI Systems? • Visa • Detecting potential credit card fraud • Walmart • Predicting buying patterns • US Military • Numerous applications including autonomous vehicle navigation, data analysis, missile guidance systems, and face recognition 5. Biggest AI Investors? • Search engines (Google, Yahoo, Microsoft) • Includes language translation • Help systems (Microsoft) • User preferences (Amazon.com, Netflix) “A breakthrough in machine learning would be worth ten Microsofts” Bill Gates 6. Cool AI Applications? • Navigation • Search and Rescue • Mars Rover • Deep Space 1 Automated Driving Serious Games • Medical: training doctors • Military: training commanders • Therapy: relieving combat stress Home Robotics • Vacuuming • Floor washing • Pool cleaning • Gutter cleaning • Mowing the lawn • Shop sweeping Home Robotics: Tomorrow? Sadly, not in my lifetime, but likely yours 7. Ethical Issues? • Love and sex with robots? • Do robots have rights? • Computers as judge and jury? Coming Soon • Many of the following exist today, but will become pervasive • • • • • • Personalized health care Automated vehicles High-quality language translation Non-industrial robots Conversational interfaces Turning data in knowledge Impediments • Public perceptions from the Sci-Fi literature • AI is largely invisible • Cross-cutting technology with wide applicability • “AI” inside • Lack of knowledge in industry • UofA produces many AI graduates each year • Most leave the province/country to find a job Conclusions • AI is a major part of your life… and you don’t even know it • AI will become a more important part of your life… and you won’t even know it • Many AI technologies are mature are ready for you to use Thanks to Peter Stone, Maria Cutumisu, and various Internet sites. Thank You! Questions?