Thinking About Psychology
The Science of Mind and Behavior 3e
Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst
PowerPoint Presentation Slides
by Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Worth Publishers, © 2012
Social Context Domain
Nature, Nurture, Culture and Gender
Module 20
Nature and Nurture in
Module Overview
• Genetics in Brief
• Nature and Individual Differences
• Environmental Matters
Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Genetics in Brief
Behavior Genetics
• The school of thought that focuses on
how much our genes and our
environmental influences our
individual differences.
• The biochemical units of heredity that
make up chromosomes.
• Many genes together make up
• Every nongenetic influence, from
prenatal nutrition to the people and
things around us.
• Any influence, other than genetic, on an
individual’s behavior
• Include:
– The culture someone is raised in
– One’s family
– Socioeconomic group
Nature and Nurture Issue
• Nature side entails the
genetic code passed
from parent to child.
• Nurture side involves
all environmental
influences from
prenatal development
Nature and Nurture Issue
• Which parts of human
behavior can we
attribute to nature and
which can be attributed
to nurture?
• Threadlike structures made up of
DNA that contain genes.
• 46 chromosomes in each cell
• 23 received from each parent
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
• A complex molecule
containing the genetic
information that makes up
• The four letter code to distinguish genes
• Letters A,T,C, or G are used
• Random errors in gene replication
that lead to a change in the
individual’s genetic code and are
• the source of all genetic diversity.
• Can be desirable or undesirable changes
• The possibility of something happening
through the genetic code
• Genetics creates the potential for
• The environment may or may not trigger
the predisposition
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Nature and Individual
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Nature and Individual
Twin Studies
Identical Twins
• Twins who developed from
a single fertilized egg that
splits in two, creating two
genetically identical
• Called monozygotic twins
• Must be of the same sex
Fraternal Twins
• Twins who developed from two
different fertilized eggs; they are
genetically no more similar than any
other two siblings, but they share a
fetal environment.
• Called dizygotic twins.
• Can be different sexes
• The degree to which
traits are inherited.
• The proportion of an
characteristics that can
be attributed to
genetics (heredity)
Twin Studies
• Used to determine the heritability of a
given trait
• Data is collected from both identical and
fraternal twins on the trait
• Compare the data between the two
• Important not to conclude that a specific
behavior is inherited
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Nature and Individual
Adoption Studies
Adoption Studies
• Compare adopted children’s traits with
those of their biological parents and their
adopted parents
• Trait similarities with biological parents:
attribute the trait to heredity
• Trait similarities with the
adopted parents: attribute
the trait to the environment
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Environmental Matters
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Environmental Matters:
Early Learning and Brain
Early Brain Development
• Early experience is critical in brain
• In later life continued use is necessary to
maintain neural connections in the brain.
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Environmental Matters:
Peer and Parent Influence
Peer Influences
• Peer influence in
adolescence is very
• Many studies suggest a
peer group is correlated
with school
performance, smoking,
and other behaviors.
Parent Influences
• Parental influence is important in areas of:
– Education
– Discipline
– Responsibility
– Orderliness
– Charitableness
– Ways of interacting with authority
Module 20: Nature and Nurture in Psychology
Environmental Matters:
Cultural Influences
• The shared attitudes, beliefs, norms
and behaviors of a group
communicated from one generation to
the next.
• Understood rules for accepted and
expected behavior.
• Consist of the “proper behavior” within
a group
The End
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Teacher Information
• Domain Coding
– Just as the textbook is organized around the APA National Standards,
these Powerpoints are coded to those same standards. Included at the
top of almost every slide is a small stripe, color coded to the APA
National Standards.
• Scientific Inquiry Domain
• Biopsychology Domain
• Development and Learning Domain
• Social Context Domain
• Cognition Domain
• Individual Variation Domain
• Applications of Psychological Science Domain
• Key Terms and Definitions in Red
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definitions are printed in red. To maintain consistency, the definitions on
the Powerpoint slides are identical to those in the textbook.
Teacher Information
• Hyperlink Slides - Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (usually
slide #4 or #5) can be found listing all of the module’s subsections. While in
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• Continuity slides - Throughout this presentations there are slides,
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for three purposes.
• By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and
remember the concepts.
• By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.
• To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to
think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.
• Please feel free to contact me at [email protected] with any
questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.
Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Germantown, WI 53022
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