Reproductive strategy Extremes : many young & little care few young & much care Survivorship curve – graph that shows % survivorship of different ages in a population % of Population Surviving Age Different reproductive strategies show different survivorship curves. Type I % Surviving Type II Type III Age Population Density • Number of organisms in a unit of area • Affected by resources and behavior Population Range • Area inhabited by an organism or species • Determined by biotic and abiotic factors – Temp, precip, sunlight, predators, parasites, competitors Population Distribution Pattern of spacing – often resource based Clumped • Defensive/cooperative • Most common Random • Not as common Uniform • Negative interactions Bison Fish Song birds White-tailed deer Black bears Penguin nests Niche The role an organism or species plays in the ecosystem and community (Its “job”) Habitat Behavior Resources Indicator species – Sensitive to environmental changes Keystone Species – plays a critical role in the functioning of an ecosystem Video Sea otters Bison (buffalo) Honeybees Animal Behavior Why do animals do the things that they do? Which of these is true for you? a) Most of the things I do are because of past experiences I have had. b) Most of the things I do are because of the personality I have. c) Most of the things that I do are because of the people around me and what they do. d) Most of the things that I do are things that I naturally do without thinking about it. Which of these is true for a wild animal? Basic Animal Behavior Stimulus – Change in internal or external environment Behavior - Response to a stimulus Types of behaviors: • Innate – Done by instinct, predictable, unchanging – Baby birds chirping, similar mammals walk at same age • Learned – is developed or modified by experiences – Habituation – decreased response to neutral stimulus – Conditioning – association made between two “events” – Imprinting – permanent learning done during a specific time – Cognitive – problem solving, decision making, planning Types of Behaviors Focus on the cause, advantages, & disadvantages • Competitive – food, space, mates, etc – Agnostic – Dominance hierarchy (social ranking) – Territorial behavior • Foraging – find food without overusing energy • Biological rhythms – Cyclic behaviors done daily or seasonally • Migratory - movement to increase chance of survival • Hibernation & torpor – Slow metabolism & body functions • Communication – help with survival and reproduction – Verbal – Non-verbal – Chemical • Courtship – attracting a mate • Nurturing - food, protection, skills for survival during early stages of life – “Shotgun approach” & focused approach • Cooperative – Altruistic – Social living in herds, flocks, schools, packs, etc.