LEARNING Chapter 6 LEARNING • A systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. • 2 types: 1. Associative learning: occurs when we make a connection between two events. • Classical and Operant Conditioning • Conditioning: the process of learning associations. 2. Observational learning: occurs when a person observes and imitates another’s behavior. TYPES OF LEARNING •Classical Conditioning •Operant Conditioning •Observational Learning •Latent Learning •Insight Learning CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. • Passive process; reflexive; it happens automatically; the learner does NOT have to think • Involuntary behavior • Keywords: stimulus, response • Important people: • Pavlov • Watson • Garcia • Ader & Cohen GUIDE TO CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. • Unconditioned Response (UCR)- an automatically elicited response to the UCS. • Neutral stimulussomething that does not elicit any response. • Conditioned stimulus (CS)- formerly the neutral stimulus; elicits the same response as the UCS. • Conditioned response (CR)- formerly the UCR; sometimes a milder version of the UCR. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING EQUATION UCS a UCR NS + UCS a UCR NS = CS and UCR = CR CS a CR IVAN PAVLOV • Russian physiologist • Studied digestion in dogs • Noticed that dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sights & sounds) • Suggests that dogs must have learned to salivate • Uncovered classical conditioning • In classical conditioning, organisms learn to associate two-unrelated stimuli; that then produce the same response. GUIDE TO PAVLOV’S DOGS • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- FOOD • Unconditioned Response (UCR)- DROOLING • Neutral stimulus- BELL • Conditioned stimulus (CS)- BELL • Conditioned response (CR)- DROOLING CONTIGUITY & CONTINGENCY • Contiguity: means that the CS and UCS should be presented very close together in time (a fraction of a second apart) • Contingency: means that the CS must serve as a reliable indicator that the UCS is on its way. ACQUISITION • The initial learning of the association between the UCS and the CS (previously neutral stimulus) when these two stimuli are paired. • In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the UCS. • The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second. • After a while, the body begins to associate the neutral stimulus with the UCS. GENERALIZATION & DISCRIMINATION Generalization: Discrimination: • The tendency of a new stimulus, that is similar to the original CS, to elicit a response that is similar to the CR. • Something so similar to the CS that you get the CR. • Example: • Turkey salad vs. chicken salad • The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others. • Something so different to the CS that you don’t get the CR. • Example: • Bell for class vs. bell for announcements EXTINCTION • The weakening of the CR when the UCS is absent. • Acquisition does not last forever. When the CS is presented without the UCS the association is broken. • When the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, then the CS stops producing the CR. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY & RENEWAL EFFECT • Spontaneous Recovery: The process by which a CR can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning. • After extinction, sometimes the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented. • Renewal: The recovery of the CR when the organism is placed in a novel (original or new) context. • ABA, ABC, AAB JOHN B. WATSON • • • • American Psychologist Father of behaviorism Assistant Rosalie Rayner Little Albert Experiment (1920)used classical conditioning to teach little Albert to fear a white rat • In 2009, researchers identified Little Albert as Douglas Merritte. He died at the age of 6 of hydrocephalus. GUIDE TO LITTLE ALBERT • Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- LOUD NOISE • Unconditional Response (UCR)- CRYING • Neutral stimulusWHITE RAT • Conditioned stimulus (CS)- WHITE RAT • Conditioned response (CR)- CRYING COUNTERCONDITIONING & AVERSIVE CONDITIONING • Counter Conditioning: A classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a CS and its CR. • Aversive Conditioning: Consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus to elicit a negative response. • Can be used as a form of treatment TASTE AVERSION • Studied by John Garcia and Robert Koelling • Taste Aversion: A special kind of classical conditioning involving the learned association between a particular taste and nausea. • Also known as the Garcia Effect & Sauce-Bearnaise Syndrome • The association only needs to occur once • When it comes to food being linked to sickness, the conditioning is incredibly strong • Even when the food and sickness are hours apart • Even when the sickness has nothing to do with the food • Evolutionary adaptation IMMUNOSUPPRESSION • Studied by Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen (1975) • While studying taste aversion in mice, they discovered that the immune system could be conditioned. • Mice prone to lupus are given a saccharin solution while injected with an immune-suppressing drug to treat lupus. After acquisition, the taste alone reduced lupus symptoms almost as much as the drug.