Chapter 7 Job Description, Performance Appraisal, Evaluation and

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Chapter 7
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Job Description
Performance appraisal
Job evaluation
Job Design
1
Job Description
(not position description)
• Identifiers
– Title and other classifying information
• Summary
– Mission/ objectives
• Duties & tasks (<100 tasks; 5-10 duties)
– What -action verb)
– How – tools, equipment etc.
– Why – purpose “to…”
• Other information
– KSAOs, accountabilities, reports etc.
2
Issues in Job Description
• Descriptive v. Prescriptive
– Is performed v. ought to be
• Present v. Future
– How it’s performed now cf anticipated changes
• Key considerations
– Method to fit purpose of JA
• How it’s to be applied determines infor collected
– Know the purpose of the job
3
Performance Appraisal
Purposes
• Support performance management
– Administrative
– Developmental
• Use for criterion development (selection)
4
Rating Formats
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Graphic Rating Scales
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Behavioral Observation Scales
Forced-choice Scales
– Difficult to fake
– Reliable
• Precursor to forced distribution for ranking
– Administrative: merit awards
5
Rating Scales
(comparison)
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All are difficult to develop
Users like BOS,
Users hate forced-choice
Most not useful for coaching/development
– Especially “global” ratings
6
Behavioral Job Description
• Can substitute for management
– Objectives / outcomes from behavior terms
– Prescribed behaviors / outcomes for successful
performance
• Create one for your job
– Establish evaluation standards
• Benchmarks
7
Job Evaluation
• Equity theory (Adams) concerns with:
– Internal:
• Same jobs, same company (internal)
• Different jobs, same company (internal)
– External:
• Same job different company (external)
– Market value issue
– –what are some factors that will affect this?
8
Evaluation
• Whole job v. Compensable Factors
– Ranking method (simplest)
– SKA/effort/responsibility/work conditions
– (Equal Pay Act, 1963)
– Compensable factors
• Factor comparison method
– panel ranks jobs & assigns $ value to each factor (table 7.6)
– Jobs v. Attributes
• Point Factor methods (table 7.7)
– (Hay Group)
– U.S. Civil Service Commission (table 7.8)
Evaluation Methods
• Multiple Regression
– Beta weights used
• PAQ
– Cross validation avg about .85)
• O*Net
– Standardized set of abilities and work activities
• Good reliability for Job Evaluation
10
Job Design / Redesign
• Production System Needs
• Social –Organizational Needs
• Individual worker Needs
– Physical
– JCM dimensions
– Internal Social relations factors
– Career paths
11
Design Decisions
• Accomplished by People
– For Problem solving, Humans are better than robots
(so far)
– Keeps them tuned up if they have to use skills
• Airline pilots
• Truck divers (in the future)
• Task Allocation
– How many people do you need?
– Redundancy needed?
– Cross training?
• Job Relations (proximal – distal distance)
12
Key Considerations
• Kinds of information
– Duties and how they fit the mission
• Redesign Process (4 steps)
– 1. Define task clusters (smallest collection)
– 2. Rate clusters (table 7.9)
– 3. Combine clusters
– 4. Evaluate results
• For motivational potential and satisfaction
13
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