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高等教育投資:邏輯與比較
曾孝明
清華大學電機系([email protected])
參考文獻
曾孝明,台灣教育的宏觀與微觀,御書房(2004)。
曾孝明,台灣產業的對焦與失焦,御書房(2004)。
曾孝明,台灣的知識經濟 ── 困境與迷思,群學(2001)。
2007年11月3日
1
大
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
綱
傳統大學成長的動力。
卓越是一種傳統,更是一種文化(以英國的投資為例)。
美國的高等教育與運作方式是全球最例外的一個。
自主又完備的研發基礎架構 → 卓越。
卓越的指標、動力、國際化和管理到底是什麼?
最值得了解與借鏡的三個國家 ── 瑞士、荷蘭、以色列。
產學關係與互動。
大學是研發基礎架構的搖籃。
漢字文化背景的地區的問題。
台灣的高等教育投資與管理、整體教育出了什麼大問題?
結論:我們太迫切需要公共政策研究。
2
教
改
失
當
工
商
時
報
二
○
○
七
年
一
月
一
日
3
專業知識的成長與需求
Photo: David Clugston
THE DOCTOR IS IN:
Developed at the University of
Washington’s BioRobotics Lab,
a remote-controlled two-armed
surgical robot “operates” on a
plastic and rubber anatomical
model of a human torso.
Doc at a Distance
By Jacob Rosen and Blake
Hannaford
IEEE SPECTRUM Oct. 2006
4
A Hothouse of Molecular Biology
Prized moment. Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, John Steinbeck (Nobel
laureate in literature), James Watson, Max Perutz, and John Kendrew (left
to right) all left Stockholm with Nobel Prizes in hand. CREDIT: AP PHOTO
5
Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003
Nobel lineage. Many scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (orange) and
its predecessor (green), have received honors at Stockholm and, over the decades,
attracted new talent destined to win prizes. (Dates reflect years spent at the lab.)
6 ,
Elizabeth Pennisi, A Hothouse of Molecular Biology, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282
11 April 2003.
50th anniversary of discovery of DNA
 LMB had it origins in the illustrious 19th century Cavendish Laboratory. Cavendish
scientists excelled in physics. J. J. Thomson discovered the electron there, and Ernest
Rutherford smashed the atom.
 What started about 55 years ago as a pilot program in biophysics at the University of
Cambridge eventually became the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), now home to about
300 researchers and alma mater to hundreds of molecular biology's most influential.
 Watson (a Nobel laureate) has called LMB "the most productive center for biology in the
history of science."
 Over the past 5 decades, they invented key technologies such as DNA sequencing. And
they have helped to elucidate some of the most fundamental questions in biology: how
genes carry the instructions for proteins, for instance, and how a single cell develops into an
animal.
When LMB researchers needed a new instrument, Perutz (a Nobel
laureate)made sure technicians and engineers were there to build it, a
model he learned at the Cavendish.

 "It's not whether you have published a lot of papers, it's more whether you have done
some fundamental work," says LMB bioinformaticist Sarah Teichmann.
 Sulston and Horvitz opened up a new field in cell biology, earning the 2002 Nobel.
Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003.
7
Uniqueness in the U.K.
Astrophysics and Space Research Group, Univ. of Birmingham, U.K. was
founded in 1946 under the leadership of Professor J. Sayers.
8
The world’s front runner
Optoelectronics Research Center, Univ. of Southampton, U.K.
9
Truly innovative research → $$
Centre for Photonics and Photonic
Materials, Department of Physics at
Bath University, U.K., was found and
led by Prof. Russell in 1996.
P. St. J. Russell et. al., Single-Mode
Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in
Air, Science 3 September 1999
10
A small but great “group”
The Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials is formed by around 30
academics (including 8 academic staff), postdocs and PhD students from
the Department of Physics at Bath, who work together in an interactive and
collaborative environment doing cutting-edge research in Photonics. Much
of our work is based in our state-of-the-art fabrication facilities and our
11
extensive optical laboratories. (www.bath.ac.uk )
MONEY
• 1996 Prof. Anders Bjarklev, Jes Broeng
and Stig E. Barkou began research at
The Technical University of Denmark.
• 1999 Crystal Fibre A/S is founded.
Majority owned and funded by Danish
industrial group NKT.
• 2000 First products sold, making Crystal
Fibre the first commercial supplier of
photonic crystal fibers.
• 2001 New production facilities on-line
• 2004 Crystal Fibre acquires the assets of
BlazePhotonics
(www.crystal-fibre.com)
Crystal Fibre A/S is today the biggest commercial supplier of photonic crystal
fibers and offer a diversity of speciality fibers within nonlinear fibers, large
mode area fibers as well as high NA and UV optimized fibers - all from stock.
12
Top 10 recipients of HEFCE research
capital funds Institution Allocation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cambridge
UCL
Oxford
Imperial
Manchester
King’s College
Southampton
Leeds
Birmingham
Sheffield
£68.8m
£68.5m
£67.7m
£63.9m
£49.3m
£37.1m
£30.6m
£30.4m
£29.2m
£29.1m
歐式與日本的大學是採雙
重補助制度,教育部補助
基礎(核心)架構所需之
研究經費,而研究經費的
撥款單位(如我國的國科
會)則補助特定研究所需
之研究經費。
Source: The Higher Education Funding Council for England; HEFCE(2005)
13
The U.S.A. is always unique
14
The world’s best
TOP SCHOOLS FOR POSTDOCS, 1997
Academic Institution
Total Science Eng. Health
Harvard University
2505
1064
42
1399
Stanford University
1231
619
92
520
Univ. of Calif., San Francisco
University of Pennsylvania
Univ. of California, Berkeley
1133
1052
964
341
616
775
0
27
112
792
409
77
University of Washington
Johns Hopkins University
Univ. of California, San Diego
933
929
901
522
382
463
32
35
60
379
512
378
Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles
University of Michigan
735
675
320
335
81
67
334
273
15
Academic Institution
Total
Science
Eng.
Health
Washington University
666
324
13
329
University of Colorado
635
370
43
222
Cornell University
560
344
42
174
Univ. of NC, Chapel Hill
549
333
1
215
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
547
356
53
138
University of Minnesota
519
367
80
72
Mass. Inst. of Technology
514
343
126
45
Columbia University
503
328
20
155
Yale University
499
202
0
297
Univ. of Southern California
461
230
27
204
Duke University
453
231
8
214
Calif. Inst. of Technology
446
380
66
0
38,043
23,972
2,945
11,126
Total for all institutions
CREDIT: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Karen Schmidt, Science, Vol 285, No. 5433, pp. 1517-1519 , 3 Sep. 1999. 16
Nobel Laureates (California Institute of Technology)
• 1923 - Physics, Robert A. Millikan
• 1936 - Physics, Carl D. Anderson
• 1961 - Physics, Rudolf Mössbauer
• 1965 - Physics, Richard P. Feynman
• 1969 - Physics, Murray Gell-Mann
• 1983 - Physics, William A. Fowler
• 2004 - Physics, H. David Politzer
• 1954 - Chemistry, Linus Pauling (1962 - Peace)
• 1992 - Chemistry, Rudolph A. Marcus
• 1999 - Chemistry, Ahmed Zewail
• 2005 - Chemistry, Robert H. Grubbs
• 1933 - Physiology or Medicine, Thomas H. Morgan
• 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, George Beadle
• 1969 - Physiology or Medicine, Max Delbrück
• 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Roger W. Sperry
• 1995 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward B. Lewis
17
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html
Nobel Laureates (Rockefeller Institute for
Medical Research & Rockefeller Univrsity)
• 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George H. Whipple
• 1946 - Chemistry, John H. Northrop
• 1946 - Chemistry, Wendell M. Stanley
• 1912 - Physiology or Medicine, Alexis Carrel
• 1930 - Physiology or Medicine, Karl Landsteiner
• 1944 - Physiology or Medicine, Herbert S. Gasser
• 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward Tatum
• 1972 - Chemistry, Stanford Moore
• 1972 - Chemistry, William H. Stein
• 1984 - Chemistry, Bruce Merrifield
• 2003 - Chemistry, Roderick MacKinnon
• 1966 - Physiology or Medicine, Peyton Rous
• 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, Haldan K. Hartline
• 1972 - Physiology or Medicine, Gerald M. Edelman
• 1974 - Physiology or Medicine, Christian de Duve
• 1999 - Physiology or Medicine, Günter Blobel
• 2000 - Physiology or Medicine, Paul Greengard
Since the
institution's founding
in 1901, 23 Nobel
Prize winners have
been associated
with the university.
Paul Nurse
President
Nobel Prize in 2001
"The best way to learn science
is by doing science."
18
www.rockefeller.edu/graduate/ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html
Nobel Laureates
(Harvard University & Medical School )
• 1953 - Physiology or Medicine, Fritz Lipmann
• 1954 - Physiology or Medicine, John F. Enders
• 1980 - Physiology or Medicine, Baruj Benacerraf
• 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, David H. Hubel
• 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Torsten N. Wiesel
• 1946 - Physics, Percy W. Bridgman
• 1952 - Physics, E. M. Purcell
• 1965 - Physics, Julian Schwinger
• 1977 - Physics, John H. van Vleck
• 1979 - Physics, Steven Weinberg
• 1981 - Physics, Nicolaas Bloembergen
• 1989 - Physics, Norman F. Ramsey
• 2005 - Physics, Roy J. Glauber
• 1914 - Chemistry, Theodore W. Richards
• 1965 - Chemistry, Robert B. Woodward
• 1976 - Chemistry, William Lipscomb
• 1986 - Chemistry, Dudley R. Herschbach
• 1990 - Chemistry, Elias James Corey
• 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George R. Minot
• 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, William P. Murphy
• 1961 - Physiology or Medicine, Georg von Békésy
• 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, James Watson
• 1964 - Physiology or Medicine, Konrad Bloch
• 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, George Wald
• 1971 - Economic Sciences, Simon Kuznets
• 1972 - Economic Sciences, Kenneth J. Arrow
• 1973 - Economic Sciences, Wassily Leontief
• 1997 - Economic Sciences, Robert C. Merton
• 1980 - Chemistry, Walter Gilbert
• 1979 - Physics, Sheldon Glashow
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html
19
Nobel Laureates (University of Cambridge)
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
• 1906 - Physics, J.J. Thomson
• 1927 - Physics, C.T.R. Wilson
• 1933 - Physics, Paul A.M. Dirac
• 1962 - Chemistry, Max F. Perutz
• 1973 - Physics, Brian D. Josephson
• 1962 - Chemistry, John C. Kendrew
• 1974 - Physics, Martin Ryle
• 1980 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger
• 1974 - Physics, Antony Hewish
• 1982 - Chemistry, Aaron Klug
• 1977 - Physics, Sir Nevill F. Mott
• 1997 - Chemistry, John E. Walker
• 1922 - Chemistry, Francis W. Aston
• 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, Francis Crick
• 1957 - Chemistry, Lord Todd
• 1984 - Physiology or Medicine, César Milstein
• 1958 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger
• 1929 - Physiology or Medicine, Sir Frederick Hopkins
• 1932 - Physiology or Medicine, Edgar Adrian
• 1963 - Physiology or Medicine, Alan L. Hodgkin
• 1977 - Economic Sciences, James E. Meade
• 1984 - Economic Sciences, Richard Stone
• 1996 - Economic Sciences, James A. Mirrlees
Nobel Laureates (University of California at Santa Barbara)
• 2000 - Physics, Herbert Kroemer
• 1998 - Chemistry, Walter Kohn
• 2000 - Chemistry, Alan Heeger
• 2004 - Economic Sciences, Finn E. Kydland
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html
20
World-best Infrastructures
Advanced Light Source
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California
Completed: 1993
1997 Operating Cost: $18 million
Technical Specs: High-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet radiation
Number of users: 300
Andrew Lawler, Science, Vol 277, Issue 5327, 756-757 , 8 August 1997
21
France urged to open up élite education
France's élite grandes écoles should operate less in isolation from the rest of
higher education and be integrated more into the university system through the
creation of joint courses and degrees and the sharing of facilities such as
libraries and laboratories.
Graduates of the écoles have served France well in the past within the state's
massive technological programmes in such fields as nuclear energy,
aerospace and high-speed trains. But economic needs have now shifted
towards a higher education system that fosters contacts between scientists,
entrepreneurs and small companies.
The report argues that the selection process has become too élitist, benefiting
almost exclusively the children of top civil servants or wealthy industrialists,
who have enjoyed a privileged education. This social inequality has widened in
recent decades, according to the report, with most entrants to the grandes
écoles now coming from just a handful of top schools.
Declan Butler, Nature 393, 102 (14 May 1998)
22
École Polytechnique
(Left) Anne Chopinet, entered the École first ranked in 1972. (Right) Every year,
the Polytechnicients take part in the Bastille Day March on the Champs-Elysées.
The Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1794, is under the authority of the
French Department of Defense. it is headed by a general, and employs military
personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions.
a small size: a 'Grande École' is usually of the size of a university department,
with at most of 300 to 500 graduates per year.
an approach based on fundamentals, with a strong emphasis on mathematics
and physics, and a high level of abstraction.
www.polytechnique.edu
23
Closing in on the perfect code
It happened a decade ago at the 1993 IEEE International Conference on
Communications in Geneva, Switzerland. Two French electrical engineers, Claude
Berrou and Alain Glavieux, made a flabbergasting claim: they had invented a digital
coding scheme that could provide virtually error-free communications at data rates
and transmitting-power efficiencies well beyond what most experts thought possible.
Few veteran communications engineers believed the results. The Frenchmen, both
professors in the electronics department at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des
Télécommunications de Bretagne in Brest, France, were then unknown in the
information-theory community. The claims were so preposterous that many
experts didn't even bother to read the paper.
Berrou and Glavieux were right, and their error-correction coding scheme, which
has since been dubbed turbo codes, has revolutionized error-correction coding.
Chances are fairly good that the next cellphone you buy will have them built in.
With possibilities like these, turbo codes have jumped to the forefront of
communications research, with hundreds of groups working on them in companies
and universities all over the world. The list includes telecommunications giants like
France Télécom and NTT DoCoMo; high-tech heavyweights like Sony, NEC,
Lucent, Samsung, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, and Qualcomm; hardware and chip
manufacturers like Broadcom, Conexant, Comtech AHA, and STMicroelectronics;
and start-ups like Turboconcept and iCoding.
24
Erico Guizzo, IEEE March 2004
Big science
Science 23 March 2007
CREDIT: CERN
25
浜松ホトニクス株式会(Hamamatsu)
1948 Tokai Electronics Laboratory (original company of Hamamatsu
Photonics) established.
1966 New York Business Office opened.
1985 Headquarters Business Office opened and Tsukuba Research
Laboratory established.
1990 Central Research Laboratory and Sendai Sales Office opened
2002 Masatoshi Koshiba(小柴昌俊), professor emeritus of University
of Tokyo, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Prof. Koshiba
was recognized for having established the new field of "Neutrino
Astronomy" as a result of research conducted at the Kamiokande,
which was equipped with photomultiplier tubes made by
HAMAMATSU.
2003 As a first step of new industry to achieve "true health" for mankind,
the building of a clinical facility for the Hamamatsu Medical
Imaging Center run by the Hamamatsu Medical Photonics
Foundation was completed to facilitate the early detection of
cancer and dementia.
2005 "The Graduate School for the Creation of New
Photonics Industries" where new industries
based on light started.
26
KamLAND (Kamioka Liquid scintillator AntiNeutrino Detector www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/KamLAND/)
27
Artist's conception of
the IceCube array of
photodetectors now
under construction at
the South Pole. When
complete, IceCube will
detect neutrinos
originating from
collisions of cosmic
rays with nitrogen and
oxygen in the Northern
Hemisphere; neutrinos
reaching the detector
must first pass through
28
the entire planet.
Big Winners, Big Expectations
Host Institution
New Institute Name
Objective
Kyoto
University
Institute for Integrated
Cell-Material Sciences
To understand and control chemical and
physical processes at the cellular scale
Tohoku
University
Research Ctr. for Atom,
Molecule, Materials
To promote the development of new
materials, particularly bulk glass
University
of Tokyo
Institute for the Physics and To study basic questions about the origin,
Mathematics of the
composition, and fate of the universe
Universe
Osaka
University
Immunology Frontier
Research Center
National Inst. for
MaterialsScience
Int. Center for Materials
Nanoarchitectonics
To merge imaging and immunology to
study immune cell activity in vivo
To study and control materials
at the nano scale
Dennis Normile, Science, 317, 1493 14 September 2007
29
島津製作所與田中耕一
平成17年度(2005年)部門別売上高構成比
(Left) In 1875, Genzo Shimadzu (1839-1894) starts
a business manufacturing educational physics and
chemistry instruments at Kiyamachi-Nijo in Kyoto.
(Right) In 1909, the first medical X-ray in Japan.
Stockholm in 200230
$12 billion project
Reactor reborn.
Japan will remove the
core of its JT-60
reactor and rebuild it
with superconducting
magnets to aid the
ITER project.
CREDIT: JAPAN
ATOMIC ENERGY
AGENCY
FUSION: Scientists Reap ITER's First Dividends by Daniel Clery
Japanese researchers were disappointed when they lost a bid last year to host
the $12 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project.
In an agreement due to receive provisional approval this week, some $870
million will be spent on fusion-related facilities in Japan, with equal contributions
31
from Japan and the European Union.
Science 24 November 2006
Daniel Clery, FUSION REACTOR: ITER's $12 Billion Gamble,
Science 13 October 2006: Vol. 314. no. 5797, pp. 238 – 242.
32
論文被引用率
國
2002年 93–02年
國
2002年 93–02年
瑞士
1.70
1.59
巴西
0.58
0.62
美國
1.48
1.41
大陸
0.55
0.51
丹麥
1.48
1.33
台灣
0.55
0.56
英國
1.39
1.21
印度
0.48
0.40
荷蘭
1.39
1.33
伊朗
0.42
0.44
D. A. KING, The scientific impact of nations, Nature 430, 311 - 316 (15 July 2004)
33
台灣與其它五國在1997-2001年共十學門的論文影響力(單位:%)
學門
台灣
墨西哥
瑞士
瑞典
荷蘭
以色列
物理
–39
–40
+88
+13
+42
+31
電腦科學
–38
-
+55
+7
+25
+34
工程
–30
–28
+83
+29
+32
+16
材料科學
–23
–32
+46
+8
+26
+52
葯理學
–33
–32
+54
+31
+9
+2
化學
–30
–39
+56
+29
+48
+27
農業科學
+ 4
–21
+46
+26
+57
–11
免疫學
–53
–51
+62
–29
–4
–25
分子生物
–55
–62
+32
–16
+2
–9
太空科學
–23
–16
+23
+0
+44
–36
註:電機、材料兩系的論文,不乏發表在物理類學術期刊。我們產學界完全
沒有建立起研發無音(或極其淨音)的生產機械或設備的核心能力(包括基
礎性研究、材料科技和技術等等),亦不知方向和策略。
34
International Comparison of Public Expenditure on Education
Canada
Mexico
U.S.
Brazil
Austria
France
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
U.K.
Australia
Year
1994
1995
1994
1995
1996
1996
1996
1996
1996
1995
1995
GNP
6.9%
4.9%
5.4%
5.1%
5.4%
6.0%
4.8%
4.9%
5.1%
5.3%
5.5%
India
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Japan
Korea
Singapore
Hong Kong
China
Taiwan
Year
1996
1996
1997
1997
1996
1994
1995
1995
1995
1996
1993
GNP
3.2%
1.4%
4.9%
3.4%
4.8%
3.6%
3.7%
3.0%
2.9%
2.3%
5.8%
Source:UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1999 Edition (Apr. 25 , 2000)
(http://web-japan.org/stat/stats/16EDU11.html)
在1994年街頭教改運動熱身的前一年,在5~20歲學童、學生上的
教育支出占GDP的比重,台灣政府的經費比重是人口逾1000萬、年
35
平均國民所得逾8千美元的國家中和加拿大並列「世界第一」。
1998年大學教育總支出與政府部份
的支出佔GDP的比重(單位:%)
南韓
2.51,0.44
澳洲
1.59,1.09
美國
2.29,1.07
丹麥
1.53,1.49 西班牙 1.11,0.84
加拿大
1.85,1.53
挪威
1.51,1.42
法國
1.13,1.01 匈牙利 1.01,0.80
冰島
1.78,1.74
澳地利 1.46,1.44
英國
1.11,0.83 比利時 0.91,0.91
芬蘭
1.67,1.67
愛爾蘭 1.38,1.08
瑞士
1.11,1.11
瑞典
1.67,1.49
德國
1.04,0.97
希臘
1.21,1.04
荷蘭
1.18,1.15 葡萄牙 1.04,0.96
日本
台灣
1.02,0.43
1.05,0.56
資料來源:國際經濟合作暨開發組織(www.oecd.org/oecd/),教育部。
36
1990年荷蘭、德國大學(含研究生)每
位學生的開銷(單位:萬台幣)
醫
學
科
學
農
業
工
程
文、藝、語言
社 會 科 學
項目
總額
教學
總額
教學
總額
教學
總額
教學
總額
教學
總額
教學
荷蘭
106.1
42.2
87.0
38.0
65.7
37.7
60.0
33.6
20.2
11.2
17.8
10.0
德國
75.0
55.8
33.1
16.0
39.9
18.0
31.5
12.5
13.3
8.8
8.1
4.9
據此,每單位學生開銷是,人文社會類:理工農:醫學類 =1:3:5~6。
註:英國醫學院學生的總開銷約是荷蘭的一倍。
Source: L. Goedegebuure and F. van Vught, edited, Comparative Policy Studies in
Higher Education, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS),
Enschede and Uitgeverij (1994).
37
一致的統計數字
稍加留意歐洲國家的傳統四年制(或德式五年制)大
學,可發現國家的人口和大學的數目有高度的一致關
係。以2002年的數據為準,人口4.5百萬的挪威有4所
大學,人口7.4百萬的瑞士有10所大學,人口16百萬
的荷蘭有13所大學。從這些國家得到一關係,即平均
每一百萬人口可有一所大學。這些國家中,雖然每單
位人口有最多大學的是瑞士,但它卻是全球富有國家
中,大學生佔及齡人口比重最低的國家。其次,再對
比位於中東地區人口6.4百萬,世界唯一的「科技奇
蹟」以色列,若不計那所具有準大學地位的魏茲曼研
究所,它6所大學也符合前述的關係。這些國家的傳
統大學,不是公立,就是實質的公立。
38
退學率和畢業率
瑞士(傳統)大學
1990年退學率
Geneva、Lausanne、Fribourg、Neuchatel、Zurich
40%~50%
Basel、Bern、St. Gallen
30%~40%
EPF(Laussanne)
約40%
ETH(Zurich)
約20%
L. Goedegebuure, et. al., edited, Higher Education Policy: An International
comparative Perspective, Pergamon Press, Oxford(1993).
On average over the period 1982-1986, 6% (university students)
complete their study in the nominal four-year period, which rises to
20% after five years, 43% after six years, and 53% after seven years.
Goedegebuure et. al., Higher Education Polcy in the Netherlands, pp. 195 in L.
Goedegebuure and F. van Vught, edited, Comparative Policy Studies in Higher Education,
Center for Higher Education Policy Studies(CHEPS), Enschede and Uitgeverij
39
(1994).
瑞士(傳統)大學
School
Founded
Number of
Students
NonSwiss
Language of
Instruction
University of Basel
1460
8,000
University of Bern
1834
10,000
5% German / French
University of Fribourg
1889
8,600
16% French / German
University of Geneva
1559
11,800
33% French / English
University of Lausanne
1537
9,200
University College of Lucerne
1600
250
17% German
University of Lugano
1996
650
30% Italian
University of Neuchatel
1838
3,400
20% French
University of St. Gallen
1898
4,200
25% German / English
University of Zurich
1833
19,500
Federal Inst. of Technology (Lausanne)
1853
4,500
24% French / English
Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich)
1854
11,700
10% German / English
/ French
13% German
20% French
12% German
Source: www.swiss.org.tw/education/schools.htm
註:瑞士是單位人口產生諾貝爾獎得主最多的國家。
40
走進講堂 活學活用
走進講堂口若懸河授課50分鐘,這對大學教授來說是不夠的。
大學教授必須熟悉講授範疇的每一細節。他(她)必須能夠
編組教材,分成適當章節。強調其關聯性,引介原理,確認
假設,探究意義含糊之處,揭示引喻,討論其用途以及說明,
詰難、回應、解讀、啟迪、並如Newman教授所說「區別首要
和較次要之點」。
R.T. Rhodes, The Creation of the Future: The Role of the American University,
pp. 63, Cornell University Press, Ithaca(2001)
一枚原子彈在美國的墨西哥試爆,當時也正試爆點附近的費
米,手中握了一些碎紙片。當原子彈的震波傳到他所在的基
地營,他就讓手中的紙張碎片落下,然後根據紙張散布的距
離,推算出這一個原子彈的能量。費米當時所估算出來的兩
萬噸其色炸藥威力,後來證明是驚人的準確。
江才健,《楊振寧傳》,第98頁 41
Historical Background and Motivation
During the ensuing discussions, the idea emerged slowly to undertake
our own design. And suddenly I had become concrete. "Crazy" was
my first reaction, and "impossible". The sheer amount of work
appeared as overwhelming. After all, we both had to carry our share
of teaching duties back home. But the thought was implanted and
continued to occupy our minds.
Sometime thereafter, events back home suggested
that I should take over the important course about
System Software. As it was the unwritten rule that it
should primarily deal with operating system principles,
I hesitated. My scruples were easily justified: After all I
had never designed such a system nor a part of it. And
how can one teach an engineering subject without
first-hand experience!
Project Oberon: The Design of an Operating System and
Compiler (www.oberon.ethz.ch/books.html )
ACM, A. M.
Turing Award (1984)
Prof. Niklaus Wirth
42
The Oberon Project History
Oberon is simultaneously the name of a programming language and of a modern
operating system. The Oberon project [WG92] was started at the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ) in 1985 by Niklaus Wirth and Jürg
Gutknecht. It was originally targeted towards in-house built hardware (Ceres
workstation, based on the National Semiconductors 32000 processor family).
Later, the decision was made to port the system to popular computer hardware,
where it would run natively or on top of the operating system of the host. Today,
Oberon is available for many computer platforms.
In 1991, Jürg Gutknecht and his group continued the development towards the ETH
Oberon System. The goal was to exploit the inherent potential and features of
Oberon to a much larger degree, upgrade the system by a concept of composable
and persistent objects, complement the textual user interface by a graphical
companion and provide support for the ubiquitous network. In 1995, the first official
Oberon System 3 release was finished. Since then, the system has been constantly
improved and extended. In 1997, the Release 2.2 including a large palette of
applications was published together with a comprehensive hypertext-based
documentation. In March 2000, a new release was ready and the system was
renamed "ETH Oberon System".
43
Niklaus Wirth -1984 Turing Award winner
Books
• Systematic Programming. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1973.
• PASCAL - User Manual and Report. (with Kathy Jensen) Springer-Verlag,
1974.
• Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs,1975.
• Programming in Modula-2. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 1982.
• Algorithms & Data Structures. Prentice-Hall, 1986.
• Programming in Oberon: Steps beyond Pascal and Modula. (with M.
Reiser) Addison-Wesley, 1992.
• Project Oberon. (with J. Gutknecht) Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992.
• Digital Circuit Design. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995.
• Theory and Techniques of Compiler Construction. Addison-Wesley,
Reading, 1996.
• The School of Niklaus Wirth. L. Boszormenyi, J. Gutknecht, G. Pomberger,
Eds.
D-Punkt Verlag, 2000., and Morgan Kaufmann.
• Compilerbau. Teubner-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1977.
Germany versions excluded (www.oberon.ethz.ch).
44
Dutch researchers' freedoms and responsibilities
Following damaging cuts in public spending last year, a new research policy in
the Netherlands promises more freedom to researchers to set priorities. But
national interests should not be forgotten.
Universities will submit strategic plans to the NWO every four years, rather than
two-yearly reports of progress to the ministry. The NWO, in turn, will craft a
national research plan based on universities' submissions. In order to foster
awareness of potential economic and social relevance, foresight studies
developed by the independent Advisory Council for Science and Technology
Policy will be available for universities to take into account as they see fit.
t would be wrong to conclude that the Netherlands has drawn back from the idea
that science should help develop the country economically and socially. Rather,
the policy shift is an attempt to set a new balance of ministerial responsibility on
the one hand and, on the other, to delegate authority to universities and the
NWO, trusting them not only to pursue interesting questions but also to
keep the national interest in mind.
Nature 400, 387 (29 July 1999)
45
荷蘭傳統大學成立時間與(全職、
兼職)學生人數
學校
成立時間
註冊人數
學校
成立時間 註冊人數
Leiden
1575年
15,153
Nijmegen
1923年
13,181
Amsterdam
1632年
22,802
Tilburg
1927年
8,051
Groningen
1614年
18,273
Wageningen
1918年
4,855
Utrecht
1636年
22,520
Delft
1905年
11,843
Rotterdam
1973年
13,308
Eindhoven
1956年
5,552
Limburg
1976年
7,332
Twente
1961年
6,321
Vrije
1880年
12,720
註:Groningen有化工系、機械科技系。
46
一個荷蘭師資的例子
「我的外祖父是一位高中校長,他擁有物理
數學博士學位。我十二歲入學就讀的中學,
該校絕大多數的教師擁有博士學位。」
1981年諾貝爾物理獎共同得主Bloembergen教授(www.nobel.se)
註:Bloembergen教授於1920年出生於荷蘭。1938年,入荷蘭Utrecht大
學物理系就讀。1940年,他就在物理期刊 Physica上發表學術論文。
一荷蘭小學老師告訴飛利浦總公司全球電子組件事業群總裁、總公
司董事的羅益強先生說,「兒童來此,希望有生有一個值得回憶的
可愛童年,所以他(她)們來此希望能玩的很開心,同時訓練他們
能與同學們相處,因為這些學生未來將和別人一起工作,我們目前
正在教導學生們這些東西,我們相信教這些東西比較重要。」
47
The CWTS, Leiden University
The Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) specializes in advanced
quantitative analysis of science and technology performance and the cognitive
and organizational structure of science and technology. Research in short- and
long-term programmes is carried out for governments, European Union (EU),
national and international research organizations, universities and
companies. CWTS is an interdisciplinary research institute housed within the
Faculty of Social Sciences. The CWTS participates in the Netherlands Graduate
School on Science, Technology, and Modern Culture.
New Publications
Report to NWO:
1. Developing Bibliometric Indicators of Research Performance in Computer
Science: An Exploratory Study
2. Bibliometric statistical properties of the 100 largest European universities:
prevalent scaling rules in the science system
Science and Technology Indicators Summary 2005, Netherlands Observatory
of Science and Technology
www.cwts.nl/scripts/index.pl
48
Astronomical Inst., Univ. of Amsterdam
The astronomical institute of the Univ. of Amsterdam has an outstanding reputation in
the field of high energy astrophysics, but as well has built up a substantial low energy
research group, which is currently one of the leading groups using ISO data.
Observations are based both on terrestrial telescopes of the ESO (European
Southern Observatory) and La Palma and various satellite observations with satellites
like the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the X-ray satellites Rossi X-ray Timing
Explorer (XTE), Beppo SAX, Chandra and XMM and the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Institute has the following research groups and projects
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The X-ray/High-energy astrophysics group
The stellar and binary evolution group
The gamma-ray burst group
The infrared group
The massive stars and stellar wind group
The radio pulsar group
The faint sky variability survey group
www.astro.uva.nl/
Dutch Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) is a federation of astronomy institutes
at Univ. of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, Utrecht, and Nijmegen. The mission of
49
NOVA is to train students and young astronomers at the highest international level.
Head of the Department of Astrophysics
Paul Groot received his degree from the University of Amsterdam, under the
supervision of the renowned astronomer Jan van Paradijs. He wrote a
Master's thesis on a novel way to measure stellar rotation. In 1995 he
started his PhD project on the astrophysics of Cataclysmic Variables: close
binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion via a
thin, hot, accretion disc. In February 1997 it was Paul Groot who managed
to find the optical counterpart of a Gamma-ray burst, a breakthrough
that contributed significantly to (a start of) a solution of the mysteries of
Gamma-ray bursts.
After obtaining his PhD (cum laude) in 1999, he moved
to the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) of Harvard
University on a CfA fellowship. In 2002 he returned
to the Netherlands as an assistant professor at the
Radboud University Nijmegen, where he and Jan
Kuijpers successfully started a new astrophysics group.
www.astro.kun.nl/en/welk_eng.html
50
Market share held by technical
study programms
1997/1998
1998/1999
1999/2000
TU Eindhoven
24.60%
27.30%
30.20%
TU Delft
55.00%
53.30%
50.90%
Twente
19.60%
18.50%
18.40%
Groningen
0.80%
0.90%
0.50%
2000/2001
2001/2002
2002/2003
30.90%
31.00%
32.00%
49.20%
48.70%
44.90%
19.30%
19.60%
20.90%
0.70%
0.70%
2.20%
Eindhoven University of Technology:Provides 10 academic Bachelor programmes,
19 Master programmes, 10 postgraduate design programmes, 3 first degree
teacher-training programmes in mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well
as various other postgraduate courses and programmes.
http://beleidenbestuur.tue.nl/en/facts_and_figures/number_of_students/
51
3TU: cooperation for more innovation power
Through more intensive cooperation, the three universities of technology in the
Netherlands enlarge their impact on the field of the Dutch knowledge based
economy. In view of this intention, Delft University of Technology, the University of
Twente and Eindhoven University of Technology have started a process which
should lead to more harmony and co-operation in 2003.
3TU.Centres (www.3tu.nl/en)
3TU.Centre for Multiscale Phenomena
3TU.Centre for Bio-Nano Applications
3TU.Centre for Intelligent Mechatronic Systems
3TU.Centre for Dependable ICT Systems
3TU.Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies
3TU.Centre for Ethics and Technology (2 Mar. 2006)
chairs Flierman (UT), Lundqvist (TU/e) and
Van Luijk (TUD) take a look at the test
version of the website before it goes ‘live’.
Cabinet approves 50 million Euro for three technology universities
On 24 February 2006 the Dutch cabinet approved a proposal from the three
universities of technology in the Netherlands to federate. And 50 million Euro is
being made available in five annual installments to combine their research at five
centres of excellence. These will help pave the way for the establishment of the
Federation of Dutch Universities of Technology (3TU Federation) itself, which is 52
scheduled for 1 April 2007.
Interdisciplinary research center
MESA+ has defined the following indicators
for achieving its missions:
 Scientific papers at the level of Science,
Nature, or journals of comparable status;
 1:1 Balance between university funding
and externally acquired funds;
 Sizable spin-off activities.
(Annual Report 2005)
“The integration of electrical engineering, physics, and chemistry in one location
within a single research institute is virtually unheard of and, we think, unique in the
world”, say David N. Reinhoudt, MESA+ scientific director (Twente Univ. of
Technology, the Netherlands). Around 400 people work at MESA+. They include
about 100 scientists on the permanent staff, 100 technicians, and 200 Ph.D.
students and postdoctoral researchers.
Source: Chemical Engineering News Vol. 79, No. 6, 2001.
53
Circuits and Systems – Go Dutch
A brief introduction
The research area of the Circuits and Systems group covers the theory and
applications of circuits and systems, signal processing, and VLSI circuit and
system design methodology.
Our system applications are taken from several areas that require new
mathematical insights, eg. wireless communications, distributed networks,
radio astronomy and biomedical applications, and we limit ourselves to the
central signal processing aspects of these. The objective is to develop efficient
signal processing algorithms and to compile these onto embedded systems
and the underlying physical circuits. The new insights are incorporated in
design tools and actual designs. Here we benefit from the interaction with many
other research groups in the EEMCS faculty (Micro-electronics, Communications,
Electromagnetics, Multimedia and Computer Science): joint projects with these
groups provide relevant applications and a bigger scheme in which our research
fits. Signal processing and VLSI design ("algorithms" and "architectures") is really
the interface between "hard" technology and "soft" user applications.
Source: http://ens.ewi.tudelft.nl/
54
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