Theories and their Theorists - UHS-CD3

advertisement

Theories and their

Theorists

By: Alex and Ally

Psychodynamic

Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, which is now known as the Czech Republic, on May 6, 1856.

Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method that an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient.

Behaviorist

A movement harking back to the methodological proposals of John B. Watson, who coined the name.

Behaviorism was a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner procedural, aspects as well.

Cognitive

Piaget was born in Switzerland, In 1979 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Social and Political Sciences.

Stage of

Development

Sensorimotor

0 - 2 yrs.

Preoperational

2 - 7 yrs.

Concrete

Operational

7 – 11 yrs.

Key Feature Research Study

Object Permanence Blanket & Ball Study

Egocentrism

Conservation

Three Mountains

Conservation of

Number

Formal Operational

11yrs +

Manipulate ideas in head, e.g. Abstract

Reasoning

Pendulum Task

Sociocultural

Catherine A. Sanderson is an Associate Professor of

Psychology at Amherst College.

A perspective describing people’s behavior and mental processes as shaped in part by their social and/or cultural contact, including race, gender, and nationality.

Ecological

Urie Bronfenbrenner applied a general systems theory to human development.

Identifies five environmental systems with which an individual interacts.

Multiple intelligences

Dr. Howard Gardner the professor of education at

Harvard University developed the theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited.

Maturation

The Maturational Theory focuses on physical and mental development, and Arnold Gesell saw these developmental patterns being determined by a child's heredity. Gesell observed and recorded the changes he observed in the growth and development of children from infancy through adulthood.

Humanistic

In 1954, Abraham Maslow published a book that articulated another set of ideas.

He believed people who succeeded were mentally and physically heathy.

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature versus nurture is a psychology term related to heredity or the environment most impacts human psychological development

(behavior, habits, intelligence, personality, sexuality, aggressive tendencies, and so on).

Download