Short-Answer Questions - Raleigh Charter High School

After chlorine and sodium what is the next most common constituent of ocean water? (sulfate)
What % salt is typical ocean water? (3.5% or 35ppt)
What is the saltiest sea in the world? (dead sea)
What property of water due to H bonding keeps the residence time of the oceans so high? (high heat of vaporization)
What technique of desalinization uses a porous membrane to remove salt? (reverse osmosis)
What is the density of pure water at 4C? 1g/ml or 1g/cm3
What is the temperature at which sea water has maximum density and thus is found at the ocean’s bottom? (2C)
What is the opposite of turbidity? (clarity)
What depth is the CCD? (3000m to 4500m)
How is the pH of water affected by carbon dioxide addition? (lowers pH)
What are the three factors that affect the density of water? (temperature, salinity, pressure (small amount)
How fast does sound travel in water? (1500m/s or 3500mph)
How many times faster does sound travel in water than in air? (5X)
What is the term for frozen slush that is broken into discs? (pancake ice)
Is dissolved oxygen conservative or nonconservative? (non-conservative/changes due to productivity)
What is the TS in a TS curve? (temperature and salinity)
What percent of an iceberg is typically above sea level? (10%)
What law states that more gas can be dissolved in the ocean depths due to increased pressure? (Henry’s law)
What are the three primary sources of salt? (volcanic activity, hydrothermal vents, weathering of rocks)
Where is the pycnocline the most prominent? (tropics)
Where is the pycnocline least pronounced? (polar)
What is the buffering molecule for pH of water? (bicarbonate ion)
What is the pH of sea water? (7.8-8.5)
Why is it basic? (carbonate removes H+ ions)
If the acidity of the ocean drops, what would happen to the levels of carbonate ions? (drop as they absorb extra H+)
What color has the longest wavelength and therefore is first to be absorbed by water? (red)
At what depth does the pressure double in the ocean? (33feet)
Due to the index of refraction of water, objects in the water look _______ than they really are. (closer)
What is used by salinometers to detect the level of salinity? (electrical current)
What is the largest deep sea fan? (amazon cone)
What is the process by which polar sea water becomes saltier as ice is formed? (salt exclusion)
Other than the melting of glaciers, what is the most important factor that will lead to sea levels rising if global temperature
goes up? (thermal expansion of water as it is heated)
What is the average density of salt water? (1.028g/ml)
Oceanography as a scientific discipline started in 1872 with the ________ expedition. (HMS Challenger)
How many times as much salt ppt does the dead sea have compared to the Atlantic? (10x or 330ppt)
What are factors that affect the salinity of water and how?
Precipitation: lowers it
Runoff: lowers it (mostly fresh water)
Icebergs melting: lowers it
Sea ice forming: raises it
Sea ice melting: lowers it
Evaporation: raises it
Where would you see the highest salinity of water at the surface? (tropic of cancer and Capricorn)
Is deep water more salty or less salty than mixed layer water at low latitudes? (less salty: evaporation extensive at surface)
What is the affect of increased temp on density of water and why? (less dense; thermal expansion)
What is the affect of increased salinity on density? (more dense)
What property of salinity allows us to determine the total salinity of the ocean and each part by measuring the
concentration of only one constituent like chloride ions? (law of constant proportions)
What does the marine effect? (water changes slower than land in temp)