Study-guide for Exam I

Study-guide for Exam I- on Chapters 1-3
Lifespan Development
Lillian McMaster, Ph.D.
Chapter 1.
Recurring themes in Development
a. Nature versus Nurture
b. Continuity versus Discontinuity
c. Universal versus Context specific development
d. The Bio-psycho-social framework-describe
e. What are some biological forces in development?
f. What are some psychological forces in development?
g. What are some sociocultural forces in development?
h. How do all of these interact?
i. What are life-cycle forces/
Developmental Theories
a. Psychodynamic Theory
b. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
c. Behaviorism-Skinner
d. Describe operant conditioning
e. Social learning theory-Bandura
f. Cognitive Developmental Theory-Piaget
g. Ecological and systems approach-Bronfenbrenner’s theory-systems
h. Competence-environmental press theory
i. Life span Perspective and selective optimization with compensation
i. Describe Baltes’ 4 problems that arise as we age
1. Biological loss
2. Increase in culture
3. Decrease in cultural efficiency
4. Lack of cultural support
v. Selective optimization with compensation-how you address the 4
problems listed above
What is elective selection?
2. What is loss-based selection?
3. Describe compensation
4. Describe optimization
j. Life course perspective
1. Timing of life events-describe
2. Synchronization of individual transitions-describe
3. Discuss the earlier life events
Chapter 2. Heredity, prenatal development and birth
I. The mechanisms of Heredity
a. Chromosomes
b. DNA
c. 23 pairs-what does the 23rd pair tell?
d. Genes
e. Genotype
f. Phenotype
g. Alleles
h. Homozygous
i. Heterozygous
j. Dominant genes
k. Recessive genes
l. Incomplete dominance
II. Behavior genetic
a. Behavior genetics-
c. Twin studies
i. identical twins-monozygotic
ii. fraternal twins-dizygotic
iii. why study twins?
III. Genetic disorders
a. inherited disorders
b. PKU
c. Huntington’s disease
d. abnormal chromosomes
i. Down’s syndrome
ii. Klinefelter’s syndrome
ii. Turner’s syndrome
IV. Genes and environmental interactions
a. reaction range
b. passive gene-environment relation
c. evocative gene-environment relation
d. active gene-environment relation
e. niche picking
f. nonshared influences
from conception to birth
a. Period of the Zygote
b. List some things that happen during this period
i. Implantation
ii. germ disc
iii. placenta
c. The period of the embryo
i. amniotic fluid
d. period of the fetus
i. age of viability
ii. discuss some of the things that happen during this period of
Influences on Prenatal Development
a. general risk factors
i. nutrition
ii. stress
iii. mother’s age
b. Teratogens
i. drugs
ii. fetal alcohol syndrome
iii. diseases
iv. environmental hazards
1. lead
2. mercury
3. PCB’s
4. X-rays
5. look at page 70 in your text to see what is affected during
each month of prenatal development
v. How teratogens influence prenatal development-discuss each
1. depends on the genotype of the organism
2. impact changes over the course of prenatal development
3. each teratogen affects a specific aspect(s) of development
4. depends on dosage
5. damage may not be evident at birth
Prenatal diagnosis and Treatment
a. Genetic counseling
b. who should get genetic counseling
c. prenatal diagnosis
i. ultrasound
ii. amniocentesis
iii. chorionic villus sampling
iv. fetal medicine
Labor and Delivery
a. Stages of labor
i. Stage one
ii. stage 2
iii. stage 3
b. approaches to child birth
i. natural childbirth
ii. cesarean section
iii. home delivery vs. hospital delivery
Birth Complications
a. Cephalopelvic disproportion
b. irregular position
c. preclampsia
d. prolapsed umbilical cord
e. low birth weight
f. very low birth weight
g. extremely low birth weight
h. infant mortality
Chapter 3 Physical Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
I. The newborn
a. the newborn’s reflexes
i. moro
ii. rooting
iii. sucking
b. assessing the newborn
i. apgar scale
ii. Neonatal behavioral Assessment Scale
c. New born States
i. alert inactivity
waking activity
1. REM
2. non REM
3. Sudden Infant death Syndrome
II. Temperament
a. what is temperament?
b. emotionality
c. Activity
d.. sociability
e. hereditary and environmental contributions to temperament-describe briefly
f. stability of temperament
III. Physical development
a. growth of the body
b. you are what you eat!
c. what foods are good when?
d. Some rules to follow when you are feeding your child
e. Malnutrition
V. Early motor skills
a. Locomotion
b. posture and balance
c. stepping
d. perceptual factors
i. Differentiation
ii. integration
e. beyond walking
g. fine motor skills
i. reaching and grabbing
ii. handedness
VI. Perception
a. smell and taste
b. touch and pain
c. hearing
d. seeing
i. visual acuity
ii. color
iii. depth perception
iv. retinal disparity
v. perceiving objects
e. integrating sensory Information
i. intersensory redundancy
VII. Self awareness
a. origins of self concept
b. theory of mind