CO 5650 Critical Issues in Schools F 11

of the University System of New Hampshire
Graduate School of Education
CO 5650 Critical Issues in Schools
Fall 2011
CO 5650.01
Highland 039
Office Hours: by appointment.
Leo R. Sandy, Ed.D., NCSP
38 Mountain Vista Drive
New Hampton, NH 03256
Tel. 535-2287 (W), 279-4271 (H)
Kerr, M.M. (2008). School crisis prevention and intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Trolley, B.C., Haas, H.S., & Patti, D.C. (2009). The school counselor’s guide to special
Education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
Class participation (attendance and level of involvement)
Case study due 9-22
Interview paper due 10-20
Substance abuse paper 11-10
Crisis paper due 11-18
This course focuses on the role of the school counselor in special education and crisis
prevention and intervention. Topics include special education processes, roles, laws,
ethics, disability categories, the Individual Educational Plan (IEP), cultural factors,
school learning, divorce, bullying, child abuse, death, illness, parents with disabilities,
moving, school violence and disasters, suicide, substance abuse, homosexuality,
adolescent parenthood, parent-adolescent crises, rape and sexual assault and eating
Lectures, small and large group discussion and activities, individual presentations,
videos, case studies, on-line resources, and interviews
1. Special education processes, roles, laws, ethics, disability categories, section
504, the IEP and the counselor’s role in special education
2. The cultural aspects of crisis intervention
3. Types and kinds of crises and corresponding interventions
4. The counselor’s role in crisis prevention and intervention
5. The crisis response team: Roles and responsibilities
6. Substance abuse prevention and intervention
What are the roles that special education personnel play?
What the different categories of educational disabilities?
What constitutes the pre-referral and referral processes?
What are the processes and services that occur for children from preschool to
college age?
5. What laws and ethical standards guide special education?
6. What is the counselor’s role in special education?
7. What are the culturally variable responses to crises?
8. What are the school’s response team roles and responsibilities?
9. What are the six different types of crises?
10. What are the cultural implications of crisis intervention?
11. What are appropriate interventions to the variety of crises that occur in schools?
12. What are effective ways to prevent and reduce substance abuse?
Collaborative Holistic Experience Commitment Knowledge
Students will
Describe special education roles (K,Com)
Explain special education terminology (K)
Identify disability categories (K)
Explain the pre-referral and referral processes (Col,K)
Discuss the processes and services for children from preschool to college
Discuss legal and ethical issues in special education (K)
Explain the school counselor’s role in special education (CHECK)
Explain the cultural variations in response to crises (H,K)
Describe the school response team’s roles and responsibilities( Col,E,K)
Discuss general intervention goals and principles in crisis response
Identify the six different types of crises (K)
Discuss the cultural implications of crisis intervention (H,E,Com,K)
Explain appropriate interventions for various crises including school entry,
school failure, learning disabilities, divorce, remarriage, bullying,
child abuse, death, illness, having parents with disabilities,
moving, school violence and disasters, substance abuse, suicide,
homosexuality and bisexuality, adolescent parenthood, rape and
sexual assault and eating disorders (CHECK)
This course will utilize lecture/discussions, guest speakers, videos, interviews, research
papers and small and large group discussion.
1. Interview a school counselor in terms of his or her role in special education and
crisis prevention and intervention. The paper format should be as follows:
Introduction: A brief description of the interviewee and his/her
work setting
Role of the Counselor in Special Education
Role of the Counselor in Crisis Prevention/Intervention
Reflection: Your personal reaction to the interview with
implications for your own role as a counselor
 Note: Sections II and III should include specific connections to the
readings through paraphrases or direct quotes. Do not use a Q and A
2. Prepare a case study of a child with an educational disability (specific learning
disability, serious emotional disturbance, etc.) and include the following:
a. The proper IDEA (and DSM IV name if included) name and nature of
the child’s disability naming IDEA (and DSM IV) criteria
b. Specific behaviors the child is exhibiting that reflect the disability
c. Instruments and procedures used to assess the disability
d. IEP goals and objectives
e. Service providers who will implement the IEP
f. Specific strategies to address the child’s strengths and weaknesses,
including classroom accommodations and direct interventions
g. A critical analysis of the case, e.g. are the objects and goals correctly
written and appropriate?; Are the tests, strategies and accommodatons
sufficient and appropriate?, etc.
3. Choose a specific crisis such as bullying, suicide, child abuse, etc. and discuss
how the school counselor would go about preventing it as well responding to it
once it has occurred. Include in your discussion cultural considerations and how
you would work with other school personnel, community agencies and parents to
deal effectively with the problem. The format of the paper should be as follows:
a. A definition of the crisis, e.g., What is bullying?
b. The incidence of bullying
c. Signs of bullying
d. Causes of bullying
e. Cultural factors in bullying
f. Collaborative preventive and intervention efforts
4. Write a research paper on the problem of substance abuse among youth.
Include in your paper the nature and extent of the problem as well as preventive
and corrective approaches that schools can undertake to ameliorate the problem.
Your paper should also critique current programs such as DARE. The format of
the paper should be as follows:
a. The type of substance of focus and its effects
b. The incidence of abuse of this substance
c. Causes of abuse of this substance
d. Promising preventive and corrective approaches
e. The problems with DARE
Plymouth State University is committed to providing students with documented
disabilities equal access to all university programs and facilities. If you think you have a
disability requiring accommodations, you should immediately contact the PASS Office in
Lamson Library (535-2270) to determine whether you are eligible for such
accommodations. Academic accommodations will only be considered for students who
have registered with the PASS Office. If you have a Letter of Accommodation for this
course from the PASS Office, please provide the instructor with that information
privately so that you and the instructor can review those accommodations.
Incomplete grades are strongly discouraged and should only be requested for
emergency situations. If an IC grade is given, students will have one full semester to
complete the course requirements. After that, the registrar will record an F grade that will
stand, and the course will have to be retaken if it is a requirement.
Academic integrity is the foundation of the pursuit of knowledge. All members of the
academic community are expected to be dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge in an
honest, responsible, respectful and ethical manner. Every violation of academic integrity
is an affront to the academic community. Violations of academic integrity make fair
evaluation impossible and cast doubt upon the seriousness with which students accept the
responsibility of acquiring an education.
Late assignments Consistent with graduate level expectations, all assignments are
expected on their due dates. However, exceptions to this rule may be made due to
circumstances beyond the control of students such as family emergencies, illness, injury,
power outages, computer malfunctions, accidents and other situations. Because of these
potentialities, students are advised to complete their assignments in advance of the due
date. Also, students should back up their work so that computer crashes will not delay
assignments. If possible, the student should request an extension for the assignment from
the instructor before the assignment is due. If this is not possible, the student should
contact the instructor as soon as possible after the due date. If an extension is granted,
the assignment should be submitted no later than one week from the due date. In cases
where the reason for the delay may require a longer time period to complete, the decision
to allow a longer extension will be made on a case-by-case basis. Students may be asked
to provide documentation to verify their request for an extension. Assignments that are
handed in beyond the due date for which no extension is granted will not be accepted and
will result in a failing grade for the assignment.
For 2 absences (excused or unexcused), the course will need to be retaken. Three or
more late arrivals to class will result in a reduced participation grade.
Computer and Cell Phone Use in the Classroom
Computers and cell phones may be brought into the classroom but their use should be
appropriate. Computers should be limited to academic class-related uses deemed
appropriate by your instructor. During class discussions, videos and student
presentations, they should not be open. Cell phones play an important role in emergency
situations but they should be kept on vibrate and not be used for receiving or sending text
messages during the class meeting.
Number of Absences Level of Participation
0 -.5
0 -.5
0 -.5
Course Introduction and Special Education Roles, Terminology, Famous People
with Disabilities and Disability Categories, Labels as Double Edged
Swords and The Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Readings: Ch. 1 & 2/Trolley
Videos: F.A.T. City I and II and Snapshots: Learning Disabilities (20’)
Pre-referral Intervention and Process, Response to Interventions, The Child Study
Team, The Referral Process, The Child Section 504, The Slow Learner
and Social Maladjustment/Conduct Disorder, Response to Intervention
(RTI)and “Understanding the Problem of Disproportionality”
Readings: Ch. 3/Trolley, Conduct Disorder, The Slow Learner,
Videos: Attention Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities (30’) and
Snapshots: LD (21’)
Process and Services: Preschool to Elementary School, Serious Emotional
Disturbance and Mental Retardation, Functional Behavior Assessment
And Mistaken Goals
Readings: Ch. 4 & 5/Trolley, and Children of Parents with Disabilities, pp. 213230, Part II/Sandoval, and “Getting to Know the Child with Asperger
Guest Speaker: The Role of the School Counselor in Special Education
Videos: ABCs of Emotional Disorders (33’) and Snapshots: Mental Retardation
*Case Study due
Discussion of Case Studies and Special Education Laws,
Legal and Ethical Issues in Special Education and the IEP
Readings: Ch.7/Trolley
Videos: A New IDEA for Special Education and The Inclusion Dilemma
Overview of Crisis Prevention and Intervention, Crisis Planning and Child
Readings: Ch. 1 & 2/ Kerr
Video: The Trouble with Evan (90’)
10-13 Crisis Team Preparation, Crisis Communicaton and Divorce
Readings: Ch. 3 & 4/ Kerr
Speaker: The School Counselor’s Role in Crisis Prevention and Intervention
Video: Understanding the Traumatized Child (44’)
10-20 Responding to Accidents and Illnesses, and Violence, Bullying, Rape and Assault
Readings: Ch. 5 & 6/ Kerr
Speaker: Delilah Smith on Rape, Assault and Sexual Harassment
Videos: Bullied (45’)
*Interview paper due
10-27 Responding to Disasters, Psychological Supports in Crises and Substance Abuse
Readings: Ch. 7 & 8/ Kerr
Video: Weighing the Risks (29’)
*Substance abuse paper due
Responding to Death and Suicide
Readings: Ch. 9/ Kerr
Video: Bowling for Columbine
11-10 Course Evaluation, Discussion of Crisis Papers, Supporting School Crisis
Responders and Eating Disorders
Readings: Ch. 10/ Kerr
Guest Speaker: Mardi Burckes-Miller on Eating Disorders
Video: Trouble in Mind: Eating Disorders (50’)
*Crisis paper due
Plymouth State University
Council of Teacher Education
Modified for Counselors and School Psychologists
We define commitment as dedication, perseverance, and individual and social
responsibility. Our candidates are committed to lifelong learning and to increasing selfknowledge. They are committed to the beliefs that all students can learn and that
education has the power to transform individuals and the greater society. Our
teacher/counselor/school psychology candidates recognize the responsibility of those in
the helping professions to take a thoughtful and critical stance towards themselves and
their profession.
Our holism perspective involves affirming diversity and understanding the “whole child”
within the family, community and cultural context. It includes working towards an
integrated curriculum and recognizing how we as helpers are shaped by our own
experiences and culture. This holistic perspective shapes our larger vision.
Experience allows us to put theory into practice. We provide opportunities for
experiential learning that serves communities and schools so that our candidates can do
the same for their students. Experience also involves constantly renewing skills and
knowledge within one’s discipline.
Collaboration involves working with students, families and colleagues effectively within
the helping context toward shared goals, demonstrating respect and openness towards
diverse perspectives, and confronting and resolving conflicts effectively and respectfully.
Collaboration enhances teaching, counseling, school psychology and learning, and is an
essential part of developing the capacity to lead.
Knowledge refers to understanding the theory, content, methods, and materials and
technologies of one’s field, as well as understanding child, and adolescent development,
learning processes, and student motivation within the familial, community, and cultural
contexts in which children grow and learn. Helping that addresses all learners combines a
knowledge of students and one’s subjects within the cultural, social and institutional
Diversity Framework for Teacher Education at Plymouth State University
Modified for Counselors and School Psychologists
Each counselor/school psychologist candidate at Plymouth State University, by the
conclusion of her or his program, will be able to:
o Critically examine her or his own identity, and accept that our background
and experiences shape our view of the world
o Learn from and about students, families and communities
o Identify and empathize with and accept students from diverse backgrounds
o Become a multicultural person by exploring and learning to understand the
experiences and values of others
o Confront racism and other biases in her/himself, her/his classroom, and in
schools and other institutions in society
o Demonstrate commitment and skills to act as a change agent
o Implement culturally responsive teaching, counseling and assessment
Multicultural Education A comprehensive approach to education that identifies,
challenges and rejects all forms of discrimination in schools and society and accepts and
affirms the pluralism (ethnic, racial, linguistic, religious, economic, gender, age, etc.) that
students, their communities and teachers reflect. Multicultural education is not an add-on
program, but is fundamental to every aspect of the education process: curriculum,
pedagogy, policy, and interactions among students, teachers, school personnel, families
and community members. Multicultural education promotes democratic principles of
social justice and thoughtful transformation of schools and society.
Culture The values, traditions, social and political relationships, worldviews and ways of
living created, shared, and transformed by a group of people bound together by a
community or commonalities. This commonality can be self-defined or imposed by
others. Culture is socially constructed, learned implicitly and explicitly, dynamic and
contextual, and multi-faceted. It influences development, learning, beliefs, identity,
values, and interactions.
Linguistic Diversity Language is fundamental to identity and to learning. Language
embodies culture and provides a vital connection to family and community. One’s native
language is a foundation for future learning. The ways in which teachers, counselors,
school psychologists and schools respond to students’ language and dialect has profound
influence on their learning. Language differences must not be viewed as deficits.
Dynamics of Power and Privilege Most definitions of racism and discrimination obscure
their institutional nature. Discrimination is not simply an individual bias; it is above all an
institutional practice. The major difference between individual and institutional
discrimination is the wielding of power, because it is primarily through the power of the
people who control institutions such as schools that discriminatory policies and practices
are reinforced and legitimated. Prejudice and discrimination, then, are not just personality
traits or psychological phenomena; they are also a manifestation of economic, political,
and social power. (Nieto, 2000, p. 37). Policies and practices rooted in discrimination
have a harmful effect on groups that share a particular identity, be it racial, ethnic,
gender, socioeconomic status, or other (Nieto, 2000, p. 35).
Student Achievement All students have talents and strengths, and are capable of high
levels of learning. School characteristics that have been found to make a positive impact
on student achievement include an enriched and more demanding curriculum, respect for
students’ languages and cultures, high expectations for all students, and encouragement
of parental involvement (Nieto, 2000, p. 245). Educators, counselors and school
psychologists have the responsibility to implement comprehensive and collaborative
opportunities for family involvement because family involvement has been shown to
enhance student achievement.
CACREP Standards
A. 3.role, function, and professional identity of the school counselor in relation to the
roles of other professional and support personnel in the school;
A 4.strategies of leadership designed to enhance the learning environment of schools;
A 6.knowledge of the school setting, environment, and pre-K—12 curriculum;
A 7.current issues, policies, laws, and legislation relevant to school counseling;
A 8.the role of racial, ethnic, and cultural heritage, nationality, socioeconomic status,
family structure, age, gender, sexual orientation, religious and spiritual beliefs,
occupation, physical and mental status, and equity issues in school counseling;
A 9.knowledge and understanding of community, environmental, and institutional
opportunities that enhance, as well as barriers that impede student academic,
career, and personal/social success and overall development;
B 7. knowledge of prevention and crisis intervention strategies.
2d. issues that may affect the development and functioning of students (e.g., abuse,
violence, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood
depression and suicide)
2e.developmental approaches to assist all students and parents at points of educational
transition (e.g., home to elementary school, elementary to middle to high school,
high school to postsecondary education and career options);
2f.constructive partnerships with parents, guardians, families, and communities in order
to promote each student’s academic, career, and personal/social success; theories and relationships among and between community systems, family
systems, and school systems, and how they interact to influence the students and
affect each system; and
2h. approaches to recognizing and assisting children and adolescents who may use
alcohol or other drugs or who may reside in a home where substance abuse
3 c. strategies and methods of working with parents, guardians, families, and
communities to empower them to act on behalf of their children; and
New Hampshire Standards
Standard 1. Counseling and Guidance: Issues that may affect the development and
functioning of students:
1.Approaches to peer facilitation, including peer helper, peer tutor, and peer mediation
2. Approaches for recognizing and assisting children and adolescents who might use
alcohol or other drugs or who might be affected by someone who does
Standard 2 In the area of human growth and development:
1. Understanding of human behavior, including developmental crises, disability,
exceptional behavior, addictive behavior, psychopathology and its diagnosis and
treatment, and situational
Standard 4. In the area of consultation and collaboration
1.. Strategies to promote, develop, and enhance effective teamwork within the school and
larger community;
2. .Knowledge of crisis prevention and intervention strategies;
3. Strategies and methods of working with parents, guardians, families, and communities
to empower them to act on behalf of their children;
4. Knowledge and skills in conducting programs that are designed to enhance students’
academic, social, emotional, career, and other developmental needs.
Commitment to providing outreach and services to students, businesses, industries
and schools across the state
Commitment to strive to be responsive to the various needs of the state and the
Promotion of the abilities to assume the responsibilities of citizenship, to
appreciate the power of the cultural arts
Offer high quality professional degree programs
I. Goals of all graduate programs:
Provide real world relevance
Offer practical application of information
Promote research and best practices
Offer opportunities for students to reach personal and professional goals
Promote personal and professional reflection
Hallmarks of graduate programs
Leadership and Advocacy
Scholarship, Action and Application
Reflection and Innovation
Professionalism and Service
Global Awareness and Social Responsibility
The curriculum of graduate programs is viewed as national standards-based, integrated,
and culturally responsive. The curriculum is designed to develop professional
competence in ethics, research and communication.
Dispositions / Perspectives (as adapted from Harvard Business Review,
Nov. 2003)
Graduate students need to possess five perspectives - Ability to manage:
self: the reflective mind-set
organizations: the analytic mind-set
context: the worldly mind-set
relationships: the collaborative mind-set
change: the action mind-set (Goslig & Mintzberg, 2003)
Core Propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching
These standards are incorporated and promoted in the certification courses and activities
of the professional teacher education programs:
Teachers are committed to students and their learning.
Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to
Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.
Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Teachers are members of learning communities.
The following proposal made by UNESCO, the United Nations General Assembly
in 1998 (resolution A/52/13) defined the Culture of Peace as consisting of
values, attitudes and behaviours that reject violence and endeavour to prevent
conflicts by addressing their root causes with a view to solving problems
through dialogue and negotiation among individuals, groups and nations. The 1999
United Nations Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace (resolution
A/53/243) called for everyone – governments, civil society, the media, parents,
teachers,politicians, scientists, artists, NGOs and the entire United Nations system – to
assume responsibility in this respect. It staked out eight action areas for actors at
national,regional and international levels:
Culture of peace: eight action areas . . . . . peace in our hands
1. Fostering a culture of peace through education by promoting education for all,
focusing especially on girls; revising curricula to promote the qualitative values,
attitudes and behavior inherent in a culture of peace; training for conflict
prevention and resolution, dialogue, consensus-building and active non-violence...
2. Promoting sustainable economic and social development by targeting the
eradication of poverty; focusing on the special needs of children and women;
working towards environmental sustainability; fostering national and international
co-operation to reduce economic and social inequalities . . .
3. Promoting respect for all human rights by distributing the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights at all levels and fully implementing international instruments on
human rights . . .
4. Ensuring equality between women and men by integrating a gender perspective
and promoting equality in economic, social and political decision-making;
eliminating all forms of discrimination and violence against women; supporting
and aiding women in crisis situations resulting from war and all other forms of
violence . . .
5. Fostering democratic participation by educating responsible citizens; reinforcing
actions to promote democratic principles and practices; establishing and
strengthening national institutions and processes that promote and sustain
democracy . . .
6. Advancing understanding, tolerance and solidarity by promoting a dialogue
among civilizations; actions in favour of vulnerable groups, migrants, refugees
and displaced persons, indigenous people and traditional groups; respect for
difference and cultural diversity . . .
7. Supporting participatory communication and the free flow of information and
knowledge by means of such actions as support for independent media in the
promotion of a culture of peace; effective use of media and mass
communications; measures to address the issue of violence in the media;
knowledge and information sharing through new technologies . . .
8. Promoting international peace and security through action such as the promotion
of general and complete disarmament; greater involvement of women in
prevention and resolution of conflicts and in promoting a culture of peace in post-
conflict situations; initiatives in conflict situations; encouraging confidencebuilding measures and efforts for negotiating peaceful settlements…