Land Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Physical Description Dry, cold, mountainous in areas/flat in areas, mostly white, treeless, some greenery (shrubs, lichen), permafrost Average Precipitation 15 – 25 cm yearly/annually of mostly snow and ice Temperature Location Average daily is -25 to 10 degrees Celsius North & South Poles and on extremely high mountains *Extending across N. America, Europe, and Siberia *temperatures are low because it is wet and evaporation occurs more slowly Greenland, Alaska, Canada, Russia (parts of each) Tundra Cold, forest region, mountainous Boreal Forest/Taiga 20 – 200 cm per year Winter: -53 degrees Celsius Summer: 25-50 cm Winter: 50-101 cm Summer: -6 to 21 degrees Celsius 50 degree N – 60 degrees Latitude, North America, Northern Europe, Asia (aka: Coniferous Forest) Temperate Deciduous Forest trees that shed their leaves, wood that is good for furniture making, mountains and flat regions At least 75-100 cm per yr, Temperatures vary different seasons, 4 seasons, -7 to 20 degrees Celsius Found on eastern U.S, Every continent except Antarctica Plant/Animal Life Interesting Facts Plants: Arctic mosses, Many animals are white to blend with environment, long periods of dark due to lack of sun, three-fourths of Tundra is permafrost, the word Tundra comes from the Finnish word Tunturia (treeless land) willow, bearberry, pasque flower, diamond leaf willow, poppy flower, cotton grass (lichens, moss, shrubs, grasses) 400 varieties of flowers Animals: Arctic Hares, Tundra Swan, polar bears, snowy owls (mice, reindeer, birds) Arctic Fox, Musk Ox, Turncoat Snowshoe rabbit, Ermine (most live under the snow but burst into life during the summer),Rock Ptarmigan *Too cold to support trees *Snow lasts most of the year Plants: lichen, Balsam Fir, Douglas Fir, Paper Birch (cone-bearing evergreens) Animals: caribou. Ermine, Raccoon, red squirrel, warbler(variety), Snow Hare, Bobcat, Grizzly Bear Takes up 11% of the world (largest biome), known as Earth’s green halo, can be seen from space, Distinguishable by the smell of evergreens, Muskeg – spongy soil from non-decayed vegetation. Plants: Ivy, Ferns, Bermuda Grass, Deciduous trees Animals; White Tailed Deer, Squirrels, Thrushes, Turtles,Turkey Very rich soil, Main predator/Human, being destroyed by logging Named after Greek goddess Boreal. Land Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Five layers of plants: Canopy, saplings & young trees, understory/shrubs, herbs/berries, moss/lichen Warm & cold, wet and dry seasons, dense forest with a variety of trees 200 – 350 cm per year heavy canopy of trees, wet, colorful, More than 200-300 cm per year (32 feet) Dry, sand or thin soil, some can be cold, some are very hot, landscape is very bare Less than 25 cm per year (some in the south can have less than ½ inch per year) Moderate temperatures of 0 to 20 degrees Celsius Pacific Northwest U.S., Chile, New Zealand, Western Canada Temperate Rain Forest All year round: 17 to 25 degrees Celsius Tropical Rain Forest Desert Extreme heat and cold, usually 38 degrees Celsius during the day and 4 to 20 degrees Celsius at night in warmer regions, lower in cold desert biomes Near equator, lies between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, 57% in Latin America, other in Brazil, Pacific Islands, West Africa Along the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, Western U.S., South America, parts of Australia, and Asia, cold deserts in Antarctica Plants: Eastern Redwood, Douglas Fir, moss, ground fern, (tall trees, variety of trees but most are coniferous Animals: Parrots, deer, elk, cougars, slugs, black bear ,(able to live in cold and warm temps) Plants: orchids, vines, palms, moss, Bromeliads, ferns, -(lush, green, shallow root system, 4 zones: Emergent layer, canopy, understory, floor) Animals: tree frogs, orangutan, monkeys, ants, various reptiles, colorful birds, poisonous insects Plants: cactus, sage brush, brittle brush, (few plants spaced far apart) Animals: red-tailed hawk, gila monster, spiders, camel, snakes (animals that do not require large amounts of water) 55% of the Earth’s Temperate Rainforests have been destroyed making them endangered, To survive in this biome you must be able to adapt to extreme changes. Trophy hunting/poaching, many exotic food products and medicines come from the plants, app. 75 acres/minute of trees cut down, home to variety of exotic animals/bird, largest rainforest stretches across the Amazon Basin, all are endangered, receives 12 hours of sunlight. Covers 1/5 of Earth’s land, dry climate usually restricts farming, Sahara Desert is the largest desert, cannot support large amounts of people Land Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Grasslands Savanna Freshwater Marine Large flat areas, few small trees, mainly grass, some small rolling hills, no forests Savanna: brown grasses, shrubs Prairie: green grasses, wildflowers Average: 25 – 75 cm of rain per year, (A Savanna can receive up to 120 cm per yr.) -6 degrees Celsius, Ranges from mild to hot Every continent except Antarctica, Prairies-N. America, SteppesAsia, SavannasAfrica & Australia, Pampas-South America Plants: short grass, tall grass, shrubs. Variety of flowers, short trees Animals: elephants, groundhogs, coyotes, kangaroo, antelope, zebra, bison, giraffe Rich soil, wet/dry seasons, flat, not many trees, lots of grass 50-120 cm 20 – 30 degrees Celsius Australia, West Africa, South America Lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, freshwater marshes, swamps (Minimum to no salt concentration) Will vary depending on the location Will vary depending on location All continents High salt concentration in the water, mainly blue, but gets darker as you go down Will vary depending on the location, Will vary depending on location Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern Plants: grasses, Acacia trees, Boabab trees Animals: African Elephants, snakes, lions, crocodiles, gazelles, cheetahs, jaguars Plants: lily pads, cattails, reeds, moss, duckweed, slocum lotus, Animals: catfish, bass, turtle, snail, alligators, rainbow trout, deer, worms Plants: seaweed, algae, kelp, coral, shoal grass, and star grass Animals: star fishes, whales, great white sharks, octopus, eels, tropical fish, sting ray, and squid Fires & draughts are common, poaching is a problem, most species in the savannas are endangered, large herbivores keep young trees & bushes from sprouting & competing with grass for water & sunlight Sometimes called Tropical Savanna, Australia – called a Bush, Boabab tree lives thousands of years, Acacia trees are home to lots of ants which attack animals that try to feed on the tree. Covers 1/5 of the Earth, most of the freshwater is frozen, most diverse ecosystem, 700 species of fish, 97% of all water on the Earth contains salt (ocean),the longest continuous chains of volcanoes are located under the ocean, the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest part of the world’s ocean floor and the lowest elevation on the surface of the Earth.